Determination of the permittivity of some dielectrics in the microwave and millimetre wave region
1University of Oulu, Faculty of Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.2 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:isbn:9514251954
|Publish Date:|| 1999-03-23
|Thesis type:||Doctoral Dissertation
|Defence Note:||Academic Dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, for public discussion in Kajaaninsali (Auditorium L 6), Linnanmaa, on April 16th, 1999, at 12 noon.
Professor Kalevi Kalliomäki
Professor Heiko Thust
In the first part of this study, determination of the dielectric properties of the low loss microwave ceramic material, barium nonatitanate (Ba2Ti9O20), around 1 GHz is discussed. The structures under test were coaxial resonators, the cores of which were made of barium nonatitanate and the metallization was realised by thick film silver. The measured value of the real part of the relative dielectric constant was εr = 37 and that of the loss tangent was tan σ = 0.00014. The change of the resonance frequency of the coaxial resonators with temperature, in the range -20 … +80 C, was 4 ppm/ C. In addition, realisation of compact interdigital and comb-line bandpass filters was demonstrated for the 900 MHz mobile phone band. Besides Ba2Ti9O20, Ba(Sm,Nd)2Ti5O14 ceramic material with a dielectric constant of εr = 78 was also employed in order to improve the miniaturisation. The volume of the smallest filter was 2 cm3 and the weight was 9 g.
In the second part of this study, various measurement methods have been demonstrated to determine the real part of the relative permittivity of FR4 fibreglass circuit board. Test structures were straight asymmetric open-circuited strip lines. It was found that the real part of the relative permittivity decreased slightly with frequency. At 0.72 GHz and 4.5 GHz, εr values of 4.3 and 4.1, respectively, were measured. All the characterisation methods used gave consistent values for εr, and electromagnetic simulators were used to verify the results.
In the third part of this study, the structures under test were microstrip or strip line transmission lines, the S parameters of which were measured by using on-wafer measurement techniques. It was found that the insertion loss of the 10 mm long etched Cu microstrip was slightly less than that of the Ag microstrips which were manufactured by etching and gravure offset printing techniques, respectively. The performance of the Ag microstrips was, however, similar. In addition, a theoretical basis was established for the determination of εr of the dielectric substrate and the attenuation coefficient of the transmission lines under test. The calculations were based on signal flow diagrams. The method was applied to determine the dielectric and loss properties of a commercial, Kyocera, Japan, LTCC (Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic) material up to 50 GHz. The measured value of the real part of the relative permittivity was εr = 5.7, and the loss tangent was approximately tan σ = 0.003.
The essential idea behind the studies reported in this thesis was twofold. First, the studies aimed at characterising dielectric media which find usage in the realisation of UHF, microwave or millimetre wave circuits. Second, the studies aimed to obtain data of immediate value in practical design work. For this reason, the structures under test were transmission lines having extensive usage in practical high frequency circuit design.
Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. C, Technica
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