Evaporation of acidic effluent from kraft pulp bleaching, reuse of the condensate and further processing of the concentrate
1University of Oulu, Faculty of Technology, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.6 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:isbn:9514252098
|Publish Date:|| 1999-04-12
|Thesis type:||Doctoral Dissertation
|Defence Note:||Academic Dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, for public discussion in Raahensali (Auditorium L 10), Linnanmaa, on May 7th, 1999, at 12 noon.
Professor Raimo Alén
Doctor Erkki Kiiskilä
Environmental concern and tighter public regulations have created new pressures to reduce effluent loading from kraft pulp bleaching during the past decades. This trend has forced both pulp mills and the related engineering industries to develop and optimise equipment for the pulping processes which fulfils these demands. New pulp washers and washing systems connected with the introduction of new oxygen-based reagents have in particular provided considerably improved tools for reusing process water and thereby essentially reducing effluent discharge or even allowing the implementation of a totally closed water circulation system in kraft pulp bleaching.
This study was performed mainly on a laboratory scale at the University of Oulu, but some pilot-scale tests were also performed to confirm the findings of the laboratory-scale evaporation test. Another aim of the pilot-scale tests was to produce enough concentrate for further processing. Conditions were strictly controlled in all the experiments in order to ensure that conclusions could be reached regarding the phenomena examined.
The results reported here indicate that the amounts of transition metal ions such as iron, copper or manganese in the process water or water to be recirculated should be kept as low as possible during chlorine dioxide or peracetic acid bleaching, as even a small amount (<<5 ppm) markedly reduced pulp quality and increased reagent consumption. The results also show that evaporation can be used as a method for purifying acidic effluent from both chlorine dioxide and peracetic acid bleaching, and that the resulting condensates were free of transition metals and clean enough for reuse in both bleaching processes. The purity of the condensates was further improved by neutralising the feed pH of the acidic effluents from the bleach plant before evaporation. The results also indicate that the chloride ions in the concentrate arising from evaporation of the acidic effluent from chlorine dioxide bleaching can be removed by a combined acidification/re-evaporation system.
Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. C, Technica
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