Surface structure, wax and methanol-extractable compounds in Scots pine and Norway spruce needles enhanced UV-B
1University of Oulu, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.6 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:isbn:9514252799
|Publish Date:|| 1999-05-30
|Thesis type:||Doctoral Dissertation
|Defence Note:||Academic Dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Faculty of Science, University of Oulu, for public discussion in Kuusamonsali (Auditorium YB 210), Linnanmaa, on 22nd June, 1999, at 12 noon.
Professor Jean-Pierre Gorrec
Doctor Elena Paoletti
Increased amounts of epicuticular waxes and UV-absorbing compounds, such as flavonoids, and smaller leaf/needle surface area are plant defence mechanisms against UV-B radiation. The response of the needle epicuticular waxes of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) seedlings to increased UV-B were investigated in short-term and long-term greenhouse experiments. In a more realistic long-term field experiment with mature Scots pines, the methanol-extractable UV-absorbing compounds were also analysed.
Some significant changes were observed in the wax tube distribution (WTD, %) and the amount of waxes in Norway spruce seedlings in the short-term Belgian greenhouse experiment (UV-BBE 0, 11.3 and 22.6 kJ m-2 d-1), but no changes were detected in Scots pine seedlings. No changes in waxes were observed in the long-term Finnish greenhouse experiment (UV-BBE 0, 2.2–6.6 and 5.6–16.8 kJ m-2 d-1), where both the Norway spruce and the Scots pine seedlings seemed to respond by having smaller needle surface areas. A field experiment (UV-BBE 0.5–2.4 kJ m-2 d-1 and 0.7–5.1 kJ m-2 d-1) with mature Scots pines revealed no significant changes in WTD during the three growing seasons or the amount of waxes during the third growing season.
In the long-term field experiment the amount of UV-absorbing compounds varied significantly between seasons and/or needle age classes. Elevated amounts of these compounds were already observed in the three-day-old needles and also in the oldest (c + 2) needles when the waxes were still undeveloped or already somewhateroded. No significant differences in the amount of UV-absorbing compounds were observed between the treatments during the first and second growing seasons. During the third growing season, needles of all ages contained significantly or slightly less UV-absorbing compounds in supplemental UV-B than in the ambient treatment, possibly due to cumulative effects of UV-B in already inhibited pigment synthesis. This suggests that these defence mechanisms are not efficient enough to prevent the UV-B-induced damage in the long term.
Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. A, Scientiae rerum naturalium
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