Molecular characterization of peroxisomal multifunctional 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase 2/(3R)-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MFE type 2) from mammals and yeast
1University of Oulu, Biocenter Oulu
2University of Oulu, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Zoology
3University of Oulu, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:isbn:951425337X
|Publish Date:|| 1999-06-24
|Thesis type:||Doctoral Dissertation
|Defence Note:||Academic Dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, for public discussion in Raahensali (Auditorium L 10), Linnanmaa, on August 13th, 1999, at 12 noon.
Professor Pekka Mäenpää
Professor Juhani Syväoja
Fatty acid degradation in living organisms occurs mainly via the β-oxidation pathway. When this work was started, it was known that the hydration and dehydrogenation reactions in mammalian peroxisomal β-oxidation were catalyzed by only multifunctional enzyme type 1 (MFE-1; Δ2-Δ3-enoyl-CoA isomerase/2-enoyl-CoA hydratase 1/(3S)-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) via the S-specific pathway, whereas in the yeast peroxisomes via the R-specific pathway by multifunctional enzyme type 2 (MFE-2; 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase 2/(3R)-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase).
The work started with the molecular cloning of the rat 2-enoy-CoA hydratase 2 (hydratase 2). The isolated cDNA (2205 bp) encodes a polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 79.3 kDa, which contains a potential peroxisomal targeting signal (AKL) in the carboxyl terminus. The hydratase 2 is an integral part of the cloned polypeptide, which is assigned to be a novel mammalian peroxisomal MFE-2.
The physiological role of the mammalian hydratase 2 was investigated with the recombinant hydratase 2 domain derived from rat MFE-2. The protein hydrates a physiological intermediate (24E)-3α, 7α, 12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholest-24-enoyl-CoA to (24R, 25R)-3α, 7α, 12α, 24-tetrahydroxy-5β-cholestanoyl-CoA in bile acid synthesis.
The sequence alignment of human MFE-2 with MFE-2(s) of different species reveals 12 conserved protic amino acid residues, which are potential candidates for catalysis of the hydratase 2. Each of these residues was replaced by alanine. Complementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fox-2 (devoid of endogenous MFE-2) with human MFE-2 provided a model system for examing the in vivo function of the variants. Two protic residues, Glu366 and Asp510, of the hydratase 2 domain of human MFE-2 have been identified and are proposed to act as a base and an acid in catalysis.
Mammalian MFE-2 has a (3R)-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase domain, whereas the yeast MFE-2 has two dehydrogenase domains, A and B. The present work, applying site-directed mutagenesis to dissect the two domains, shows that the growth rates of fox-2 cells expressing a single functional domain are lower than those of cells expressing S. cerevisiae MFE-2. Kinetic experiments with the purified proteins demonstrate that domain A is more active than domain B in catalysis of medium- and long-chain (3R)-hydroxyacyl-CoA, whereas domain B is solely responsible for metabolism of short-chain substrates. Both domains are required when yeast cells utilize fatty acids as the carbon source.
Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. D, Medica
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