Palvelutaloissa asuvien vanhusten toimintakyky : tutkimus palveluasunnoissa asuvien fyysisen, kognitiivisen ja psyykkisen toimintakyvyn muutoksista
1University of Oulu, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health Science and General Practice
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|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:isbn:9514254589
|Publish Date:|| 1999-11-17
|Thesis type:||Doctoral Dissertation
|Defence Note:||Esitetään Oulun yliopiston lääketieteellisen tiedekunnan suostumuksella julkisesti tarkastettavaksi Kastellin tutkimuskeskuksen auditoriossa (Aapistie 1), 10. joulukuuta 1999 klo 12.
Professor Raimo Sulkava
Professor Jaakko Tuomilehto
Sheltered housing for the elderly is an intermediate type of housing, between living in ones own home and living in an institution. The aim of this study was to describe the changes in physical, cognitive and psychological abilities among the elderly living in sheltered housing during a two-year follow-up period. In this study psychological abilities were represented by depressive symptoms. The changes in the abilities of the elderly people living in sheltered housing were compared with the corresponding changes among the elderly living in their own homes. Furthermore, the associated factors and the predictors of the decline in physical and cognitive abilities, as well as the depressive symptoms were examined. The control group consisted of elderly people who were matched with those living in sheltered housing in regard to age, sex, coping with activities of daily living and depressive symptoms. The data of this study were collected among elderly people living in 20 units of sheltered housing in Finland in 1994 and 1996. 725 residents were interviewed and 340 re-interviewed after two years. Cognitive capacity was assessed with the help of the Mini-Mental Examination test (MMSE). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the shortened version of the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (ZSDS).
The results showed that the elderly living in sheltered housing were widows or widowers and lived alone more often than the home-dwelling elderly. They perceived their health as poorer, had less contacts with other people and had fewer hobbies than the elderly living at home. Nevertheless, they felt less lonely and were more satisfied with their lives than those living at home. During the two-year follow-up period the decline in the functional capacity of the elderly living in sheltered housing did not essentially differ from the corresponding change among the home-dwelling elderly. The decline in physical and psychological abilities among the elderly living in sheltered housing was similar to the decline among those living at home. Even if the decline in cognitive abilities among the elderly living in sheltered housing was more rapid than the change among the home-dwelling elderly, the difference between the groups was slight. Living in sheltered housing appeared to have neither a negative nor a positive effect on the functional capacity of the elderly.
The predictors of the physical decline among the elderly living in sheltered housing were a high age, poor physical abilities at baseline, a high number of depressive symptoms, the use of medication and a low number of hobbies. The predictors of the physical decline among the home-dwelling elderly were the female sex, a high age, poor physical abilities at baseline, a high number of depressive symptoms, health perceived as poor and low social participation. The predictors of the decline in cognitive abilities among the elderly living in sheltered housing included a high age, poor cognitive abilities at baseline, poor education, dissatisfaction with life and health perceived as good. Among the home-dwelling elderly the predictors of the decline in cognitive abilities were poor cognitive abilities at baseline and a low number of hobbies. Among the elderly living in sheltered housing the predictors of depressive symptoms included a high number of depressive symptoms at baseline, poor cognitive abilities, health perceived as poor, a high number of feelings of loneliness, a low number of visits paid to other people and high education. Among the home-dwelling elderly the predictors of depressive symptoms were a high number of depressive symptoms at baseline and a high age.
Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. D, Medica
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