Hot ductility of austenitic and duplex stainless steels under hot rolling conditions
1University of Oulu, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering
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|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:isbn:9514265602
|Publish Date:|| 2001-11-09
|Thesis type:||Doctoral Dissertation
|Defence Note:||Academic Dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, for public discussion in Raahensali (Auditorium L 10), Linnanmaa, on November 24th, 2001, at 12 noon.
Doctor Juan H. Bianchi
Professor Veli Kujanpää
The effects of restoration and certain elements, nitrogen, sulphur, calcium and Misch metal, on the hot ductility of austenitic, high-alloyed austenitic and duplex stainless steels have been investigated by means of hot rolling, hot tensile, hot bending and stress relaxation tests. The results of these different testing methods indicated that hot rolling experiments using stepped specimens is the most effective way to investigate the relationship between the softening and cracking phenomena under hot rolling conditions. For as-cast, high-alloyed and duplex stainless steels with a low impurity level, the cracking tendency was observed to increase with increasing pass strain and temperature, being minimal for the small strain of 0.1. No cracking occurred in these steels when rolled in the wrought condition. It could be concluded that the cracking problems are only exhibited by the cast structure with the hot ductility of even partially recrystallised steel being perfectly adequate. However, the recrystallisation kinetics of the high-alloyed austenitic stainless steels, determined by stress relaxation and double-pass rolling tests, were found to be so slow that only partial softening can be expected to occur between roughing passes under normal rolling conditions. In the duplex steel, the restoration is fairly fast so that complete softening can occur within typical interpass times in hot rolling, while certain changes in the phase structure take place as well.
Sulphur was found to be an extremely harmful element in duplex stainless steel with regard to their hot ductility so that severe cracking can take place with sulphur content above 30 ppm. However, the effect of sulphur can be eliminated by reducing its content and by calcium or Misch metal treatments that significantly increase the number and decrease the average size of the inclusions. It seems that the desulphurisation capacity of an element is the most important property for assessing its usefulness in reducing the detrimental influence of sulphur.
The hot ductility of type 316L stainless steel determined by tensile tests was found to be better for nitrogen content of 0.05 wt-% than 0.02%, while in double-hit tensile tests the hot ductility values were identical. The mechanism whereby nitrogen affects hot ductility remains unclear but a retarding effect on static recrystallisation was observed.
Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. C, Technica
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