Regulation of cardiac responses to increased load : role of endothelin-1, angiotensin II and collagen XV
1University of Oulu, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology
2University of Oulu, Biocenter Oulu
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|Academic Dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, for public discussion in the Auditorium of the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, on June 14th, 2002, at 12 noon.
Docent Mika Kähönen
Docent Matti Poutanen
Chronic overload of the heart is the major cause of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and eventually heart failure. It is generally accepted that autocrine/paracrine factors, such as angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) contribute to the development of LVH. Cardiac hypertrophy and failure are characterized by attenuated responsiveness to β- adrenergic stimulation and accumulation of collagenous material to the left ventricular wall. The present study aimed to characterize the roles of ET-1 and Ang II in the regulation of cardiac function. The role of the plasmamembrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) in ET-1 induced cardiac responses and the role of type XV collagen in cardiac function were also studied.
Both ET-1 infusion and mechanical loading were able to induce positive inotropic effect and induction of early response genes in isolated perfused hearts. ET-1 also induced strong vasoconstriction. Cardiomyocyte-specific PMCA overexpression inhibited the ET-1 induced hypertrophic response, while inotropic response remained unaltered. ET-1 was found to induce release of adrenomedullin (AM), a potent vasorelaxing and inotropic peptide. Infusion of AM antagonized the vasoconstrictive effect of ET-1 independently of nitric oxide. In hypertrophied rat hearts ET-1 was found to contribute significantly to the Frank-Starling response, a fundamental mechanism regulating contractile performance of the heart. In mice hearts, ET-1 was found to play a dual role in load induced elevation of contractile strength: ETA receptors mediated an increase, while ETB receptors mediated an inhibitory effect on contrcatile force. Ang II was not contributing to the contractile response to load in either rat or mice hearts. Blunted response to β-adrenergic stimulus and increased vulnerability as a result of exercise was observed in mice lacking collagen XV.
In conclusion, the present results underscore the importance of the local factors, especially ET-1, in regulation of cardiac function, not only in terms of hypertrophic but also in terms of contractile response to load. The results also suggest a role for PMCA in regulation of cardiac function. Lack of type XV collagen was found to result in cardiac dysfunction with many features similar to those of early heart failure.
Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. D, Medica
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