Placental insufficiency and fetal heart: Doppler ultrasonographic and biochemical markers of fetal cardiac dysfunction
1University of Oulu, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
2University of Oulu, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physiology
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 2 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:isbn:9514267370
|Publish Date:|| 2002-07-28
|Thesis type:||Doctoral Dissertation
|Defence Note:||Academic Dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, for public discussion in the Auditorium 4 of the University Hospital of Oulu, on June 28th, 2002, at 12 noon.
Professor Karel Maršál
Professor Juriy Wladimiroff
The first aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between Doppler ultrasonographic parameters and biochemical markers of human fetal cardiac dysfunction and myocardial cell damage in pregnancies complicated by placental insufficiency and/or fetal growth restriction. Our second aim was to examine fetal central and peripheral hemodynamic characteristics associated with retrograde aortic isthmus net blood flow.
Fetuses with significant myocardial cell damage (cTnT > 0.10 ng/ml) had increased pulsatility in the blood velocity waveforms of ductus venosus, left hepatic vein and inferior vena cava, and had more often atrial pulsations in the umbilical vein. Their umbilical artery NT-proANP concentrations were higher than in fetuses without myocardial cell damage. The proportion of left ventricular cardiac output of the combined cardiac output was greater and the corresponding proportion of the right ventricle was less than in fetuses with only increased NT-proANP levels ( > 1145 pmol/l). Tricuspid regurgitation was present more often and the right ventricular fractional shortening was less in fetuses with myocardial cell damage than in fetuses with normal umbilical artery cTnT levels. In fetuses with placental insufficiency and/or growth restriction (n = 48), umbilical artery NT-proANP concentrations showed a significant positive correlation with ductus venosus, left hepatic vein and inferior vena cava pulsatility index values for veins. Fetuses with placental insufficiency and antegrade aortic isthmus net blood flow demonstrated a shift in their right ventricular cardiac output from the pulmonary to the systemic circulation, and foramen ovale volume blood flow made up the majority of the left ventricular cardiac output. Fetuses with retrograde aortic isthmus net blood flow failed to demonstrate these changes, and they had signs of increased left atrial pressure. In addition, right ventricular fractional shortening was decreased and the pulsatility in the ductus venosus blood velocity waveforms was increased.
In conclusion, human fetal myocardial cell damage was associated with a rise in systemic venous pressure, a change in the distribution of cardiac output towards the left ventricle and a rise in right ventricular afterload. Fetuses with retrograde aortic isthmus net blood flow failed to rearrange the distribution of the cardiac output and they had signs of increased left atrial pressure. In addition, right ventricular afterload and pulsatility in the ductus venosus blood velocity waveforms were increased.
Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. D, Medica
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