University of Oulu

The minimization of morbidity in cranio-maxillofacial osseous reconstruction : bone graft harvesting and coral-derived granules as a bone graft substitute

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Author: Sándor, George Kálmán Béla1,2
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Dentistry, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
2University of Oulu, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Format: ebook
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: 2003
Publish Date: 2003-04-25
Thesis type: Doctoral Dissertation
Defence Note: Academic Dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, for public discussion in the Auditorium of the Institute of Dentistry, on April 25th, 2003, at 12 noon.
Reviewer: Professor Lars Andersson
Professor T. Sam Lindholm


Reduction of morbidity in osseous reconstruction of cranio-maxillofacial bony defects could come from development of less invasive bone graft harvesting techniques or by elimination of bone graft donor sites using a bone graft substitute. This work studies outcomes and morbidity associated with these two approaches.

A power-driven trephine was used to harvest bone from the anterior iliac crest using a minimally invasive surgical technique. Initially the safety of the technique was evaluated in a cadaver model. Twenty-five freshly preserved adult cadavers had a total of 250 cancellous cores of bone harvested from 50 anterior iliac crest sites. Twenty intentional perforations were made to the maximum depth possible with the instrumentation tested. No encroachment upon the peritoneum was found.

A total of 84 patients had 333 cores of cancellous bone harvested using the same approach with a complication rate of 3.6% and a patient satisfaction rate of 98.8%. In a further 76 patients the motorized trephine method was compared to traditional open iliac crest corticocancellous block harvesting. The trephine group ambulated earlier, required fewer days of hospital stay and had significantly lower pain scores than the open iliac crest group.

Coral-derived granules were used as a xenograft bone graft substitute to treat bony defects in the cranio-maxillofacial skeletons of 36 patients with 54 sites and followed for 12 to 36 months. The augmentations produced satisfactory results with the following complications noted: overt wound infection 1.8%, wound irritation 3.8% and clinically evident resorption in 9.3% of augmented sites.

Coral-derived granules were then used to treat 48 dento-alveolar defects in 21 growing patients with trauma induced tooth-loss in the anterior maxilla and elective ankylosed tooth removal in the posterior maxilla and mandible. Coral granules were significantly more efficacious in reconstructing alveolar defects in the posterior maxilla or mandible (93.5%), than the anterior maxilla (17.6%).

The minimally invasive technique using a power driven trephine was successful at reducing morbidity from bone graft harvesting at the anterior iliac crest. Coral-derived granules can be used in selected situations as a bone graft substitute and minimize post surgical morbidity by eliminating the bone graft donor site.

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Series: Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. D, Medica
ISSN-E: 1796-2234
ISBN: 951-42-6964-0
ISBN Print: 951-42-6963-2
Issue: 715
Copyright information: © University of Oulu, 2003. This publication is copyrighted. You may download, display and print it for your own personal use. Commercial use is prohibited.