Predictors of brain injury after experimental hypothermic circulatory arrest : an experimental study using a chronic porcine model
1University of Oulu, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgery
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|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:isbn:951427105X
|Publish Date:|| 2003-10-10
|Thesis type:||Doctoral Dissertation
|Defence Note:||Academic Dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, for public discussion in the Auditorium 1 of the University Hospital of Oulu, on October 10th, 2003, at 12 noon.
Docent Mikko Hippeläinen
Docent Jorma Sipponen
There is a lack of reliable methods of evaluation of brain ischemic injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The present study was, therefore, planned to evaluate whether serum S100β protein (I), brain cortical microdialysis (II), intracranial pressure (III) and electroencephalography (EEG) (IV) are predictive of postoperative death and brain ischemic injury in an experimental surviving porcine model of hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA).
One hundred and twenty eight (128) female, juvenile (8 to 10 weeks of age) pigs of native stock, weighing 21.0 to 38.2 kg, underwent cardio-pulmonary bypass prior to, and following, a 75-minute period of HCA at a brain temperature of 18°C. During the operation, hemodynamic, electrocardiograph and temperature monitoring was performed continuously. Furthermore, metabolic parameters were monitored at baseline, end of cooling, at intervals of two, four and eight hours after HCA and before extubation. Electroencephalographic recording was performed in all animals, serum S100β protein measurement in 18 animals, cortical microdialysis in 109 animals, and intracranial pressure monitoring in 58 animals. After the operation, assessment of behavior was made on a daily basis until death or elective sacrifice on the seventh postoperative day.
All four studies showed that these parameters were predictive of postoperative outcome. Animals with severe histopathological injury had higher serum S100β protein levels at every time interval after HCA. Analysis of cortical brain microdialysis showed that the lactate/glucose ratio was significantly lower and the brain glucose concentration significantly higher among survivors during the early postoperative hours. Intracranial pressure increased significantly after 75 minutes of HCA, and this was associated with a significantly increased risk of postoperative death and brain infarction. A slower recovery of EEG burst percentage after HCA was significantly associated with the development of severe cerebral cortex, brain stem and cerebellum ischemic injury.
In conclusion, serum S100β protein proved to be a reliable marker of brain ischemic injury as assessed on histopathological examination. Cerebral microdialysis is a useful method of cerebral monitoring during experimental HCA. Low brain glucose concentrations and high brain lactate/ glucose ratios after HCA are strong predictors of postoperative death. Increased intracranial pressure severely affected the postoperative outcome and may be a potential target for treatment. EEG burst percentage as a sum effect of anesthetic agent and ischemic brain damage is a useful tool for early prediction of severe brain damage after HCA. Among these monitoring methods, brain cortical microdialysis seems to be the most powerful one in predicting brain injury after experimental hypothermic circulatory arrest.
Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. D, Medica
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