The significance of the domains of protein disulfide isomerase for the different functions of the protein
1University of Oulu, Collagen Research Unit
2University of Oulu, Biocenter Oulu
3University of Oulu, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.9 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:isbn:9514271726
|Publish Date:|| 2003-10-23
|Thesis type:||Doctoral Dissertation
|Defence Note:||Academic Dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, for public discussion in the Auditorium L101 of the Department of Medical Biochemistry, on October 23rd, 2003, at 10 a.m.
Professor Stephen High
Professor Hans-Dieter Söling
Protein disulfide bonds are covalent links formed between the thiol groups of cysteine residues. In many proteins, they have an important role in stabilizing the three-dimensional conformation of the polypeptide chain. Usually proteins are physiologically active and functional only when they are correctly folded. Protein folding takes place very soon after the synthesis of a new polypeptide chain. Proteins which are to be secreted from the cell fold in a specialized compartment, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).
Folding and disulfide bond formation in the ER does not happen spontaneously, there are proteins which are specialized in assisting in these processes. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is a multifunctional protein, which is capable of catalysing both of disulfide bond formation and folding of a protein. In addition, it has other functions: it is an essential part of two protein complexes: collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylase (C-P4H) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein.
C-P4H is an enzyme essential in the formation of collagens, proteins found in connective tissue. The function of C-P4H is to catalyse the hydroxylation of prolines, which is essential for the structural stability of collagens. C-P4H is a tetramer, formed of two catalytic α subunits and two β subunits, which are identical to PDI. The function of PDI in C-P4H is apparently to keep it in a soluble, functionally active conformation.
In mammals there are several proteins similar to PDI, together forming a PDI family of proteins. They share both structural and functional similarities. One of these proteins is ERp57. It is specialized in assisting in the folding and disulfide bond formation of glycoproteins.
PDI consists of four domains, two of which contain a catalytic site for disulfide bond formation. One domain is the main site of interaction with other proteins and one domain is of unknown function. In this study, the role of these domains in the activities of PDI was investigated. The peptide-binding domain was characterized in detail. In addition, structural similarities of PDI and ERp57 were studied by formation of hybrid proteins containing domains of both and comparing the activities of these recombinant proteins to those of PDI.
Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. D, Medica
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