Equalization in WCDMA terminals
1University of Oulu, Faculty of Technology, Department of Electrical and Information Engineering
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|Academic Dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, for public discussion in Raahensali (Auditorium L10), Linnanmaa, on December 12th, 2003, at 12 noon.
Professor Michael Honig
Professor Dirk Slock
Conventional versions of linear multiuser detectors (MUD) are not feasible in the wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) downlink due to the use of long scrambling sequences. As an alternative, linear channel equalizers restore the orthogonality of the spreading sequences lost in frequency-selective channels, thus, suppressing multiple access interference (MAI) in the WCDMA downlink. In this thesis, linear channel equalizers in WCDMA terminals are studied. The purpose of the thesis is to develop novel receivers that provide performance enhancement over conventional rake receivers with an acceptable increase in complexity, and to validate their performance under WCDMA downlink conditions. Although the WCDMA standard is emphasized as the candidate system, the receivers presented are suitable for any synchronous direct sequence code division multiple access downlink employing coherent data detection and orthogonal user or channel separation.
Two adaptive channel equalizers are developed based on the constrained minimum output energy (MOE) criterion and sample matrix inversion method. An existing equalizer based on the matrix inversion lemma is also developed further to become a prefilter-rake equalizer. Performance analysis is carried out for equalizers trained using a common pilot channel and for the channel response constrained MOE (CR-MOE) and sample matrix inversion (SMI) based equalizers developed in the thesis.
The linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE) channel equalizer, which assumes a random scrambling sequence, is shown to approximate the performance of the LMMSE MUD. The adaptive CR-MOE, SMI-based, and prefilter-rake equalizers are observed to attain performance close to that of an approximate LMMSE channel equalizer. The equalizers considered are also shown to be suitable for implementation with fixed-point arithmetic. The SMI-based equalizer is shown to provide good performance and to require an acceptable increase in complexity. It is also well suited for symbol rate equalization after despreading, which allows for computationally efficient receiver designs for low data rate terminals. Hence, the SMI-based equalizer is a suitable receiver candidate for both high and low data rate terminals.
Adaptive equalizers are considered in conjunction with forward error correction (FEC) coding, soft handover, transmit diversity and high speed downlink packet access (HSDPA). The adaptive equalizers are shown to provide significant performance gains over the rake receiver in frequency selective channels. The performance gains provided by one antenna equalizers are noted to decrease near the edges of a cell, whereas the equalizers with two receive antennas achieve significant performance improvements also with soft handover. The performance gains of one or two antenna equalizers are shown to be marginal in conjunction with transmit antenna diversity. Otherwise the equalizers are observed to attain good signal-to-noise-plus-interference ratio performance. Therefore, they are also suitable receiver candidates for HSDPA.
Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. C, Technica
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