University of Oulu

Effect of sterilization and delivery systems on the osteoinductivity of reindeer bone morphogenetic protein extract

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Author: Pekkarinen, Tarmo1,2
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Faculty of Medicine, Division of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
2University of Oulu, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgery
Format: ebook
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: 2005
Publish Date: 2005-04-12
Thesis type: Doctoral Dissertation
Defence Note: Academic Dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, for public discussion in the Auditorium 1 of Oulu University Hospital, on April 22nd, 2005, at 12 noon
Reviewer: Docent Ilkka Kiviranta
Docent Esa Partio


Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) constitute a large family of osteoinductive proteins. Different BMPs are widely used in animal experiments and increasingly in the field of bone surgery. However, the sterilization of BMPs and the choice of a suitable mode of delivery, which binds and slowly releases BMP molecules, are still under intensive investigation.

The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of ethylene oxide and gamma sterilizations and different delivery systems on the osteoinductivity of reindeer BMP extract by using heterotopic and orthopic animal models.

Ethylene oxide gas (Steri-Vac 4XL, temperature 29 °C, exposure time 4 h, concentration 860 mg/l) and gamma (doses of 3.15 or 4.15 Mrad) sterilizations were used. The tested delivery systems for reindeer BMP were collagen (Lyostypt®), gelatine capsule (no.1) and composites containing collagen combined with tricalcium phosphate (TCP) or hydroxyapatite (HA) or biphasic tricalcium phosphate-hydroxyapatite (TCP/HA) or biocoral (NC) frames. The injectability of reindeer BMP was tested by using injections containing a saline or gelatine vehicle. Osteoinductivity was evaluated as ectopic bone formation in the thigh muscle pouches of mouse hind legs. The induced new bone was evaluated based on the incorporation of 45Ca or calcium yield, radiographs and histological examination three weeks after the operations.

The effect of gamma sterilization on the bone healing capacity of reindeer BMP extract was evaluated in a rabbit radial bone defect model in comparison with non-sterilized reindeer BMP extract and recombinant BMP-2. Bone healing was evaluated after eight weeks based on radiographs, mechanical tests and peripheral computerized tomography (pQCT).

All BMP implants induced new bone in vivo visible in radiographs, but no bone formation was seen in the control implants without reindeer BMP. Gamma sterilization did not decrease significantly the osteoinductivity of reindeer BMP extract, except when administered as an injection containing gelatine vehicle. Ethylene oxide sterilization decreased significantly the osteoinductivity of reindeer BMP extract and was significantly inferior compared to gamma sterilization. Reindeer BMP combined with collagen or composite containing collagen and TCP/HA frame induced new bone significantly better than reindeer BMP combined with composite containing collagen and TCP frame. BMP injections with gelatine or saline vehicles induced new bone effectively. Injections were easy to handle and well tolerated by the mice. Reindeer BMP extract administered with collagen carrier healed the bone defect of the rabbit radius significantly better than control implants without reindeer BMP or no treatment and its effect was comparable with rhBMP-2 treatment.

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Series: Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. D, Medica
ISSN-E: 1796-2234
ISBN: 951-42-7673-6
ISBN Print: 951-42-7672-8
Issue: 819
Copyright information: © University of Oulu, 2005. This publication is copyrighted. You may download, display and print it for your own personal use. Commercial use is prohibited.