University of Oulu

Investigation of pristine and oxidized porous silicon

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Author: Pap, Andrea Edit1,2
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Faculty of Technology, Department of Electrical and Information Engineering
2University of Oulu, Infotech Oulu
Format: ebook
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: 2005
Publish Date: 2005-06-21
Thesis type: Doctoral Dissertation
Defence Note: Academic Dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, for public discussion in Raahensali (Auditorium L10), Linnanmaa, on July 1st, 2005, at 12 noon
Reviewer: Professor Reino Laiho
Professor Turkka Tuomi


While numerous publications deal with the properties and applications of porous silicon (PS), some of the related topics are not complete or could be investigated from different aspects. Therefore, the main objective of this thesis is to provide novel information associated with the optical and chemical properties of PS.

For the investigations, various PS samples are manufactured by electrochemical dark etching of boron-doped p+-type Si wafers. Amongst others, (i) the wavelength-dependent refractive indices of freestanding PS monolayers having different porosities were obtained from optical transmission and reflection spectra in the 700–1700 nm wavelength range, and compared to those calculated from Bruggeman's effective medium approximation (EMA). The refractive indices of the PS samples are shown to be described well with the EMA. In addition, optical scattering at the air-PS interface was demonstrated. (ii) Multilayer stacks are created by alternating the porosities of PS layers within the same sample to form Bragg filters. The Bragg conditions of the filters are calculated and compared to optical transmission measurements. (iii) The oxidation of PS membranes in dry air is investigated with emphases on the reaction kinetics and on the structural changes of the porous matter. As revealed, oxidation proceeds faster in PS than in Si bulk. The formed SiO2 is amorphous and causes stress in the lattice of the residual Si skeleton. (iv) The effect of oxidation extent of PS layers on the growth mechanism of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is investigated. The density of the CNT network is found proportional to the oxidation extent of the substrates. (v) Finally, the chemically-reductive nature of PS is studied and exploited via the immersion plating method to deposit palladium and silver nanoparticles in the nanopores and on the surface of PS samples.

The presented novel results have potential in silicon-based technologies, including integrated active and passive optical components (waveguides, filters, antireflection coatings, optical gas/liquid sensors), electronic devices (electrochemical gas/liquid sensors, diodes, field effect devices) and selective chemical catalysis (substrates, growth templates).

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Series: Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. C, Technica
ISSN-E: 1796-2226
ISBN: 951-42-7775-9
ISBN Print: 951-42-7774-0
Issue: 225