Risk factors and outcome of primary intracerebral hemorrhage with special reference to aspirin
1University of Oulu, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurology
2University of Helsinki, Department of Neurosurgery
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|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:isbn:9514278798
|Publish Date:|| 2005-11-01
|Thesis type:||Doctoral Dissertation
|Defence Note:||Academic Dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, for public discussion in the Auditorium 8 of Oulu University Hospital, on November 11th, 2005, at 12 noon.
Professor Juhani Sivenius
Professor Heikki Vapaatalo
Primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) comprises 10–15% of all strokes. Arterial hypertension and warfarin use are well documented risk factors for ICH, but aspirin use also seems to predispose to ICH.
The annual incidence of primary ICH in western populations is 12–31 / 100,000. Mortality is high: 14–52% during the first month and 14–80% during the first year after ICH. The size and location of the hemorrhage, a midline shift in head computed tomography, intraventricular spread of the hemorrhage, level of consciousness on admission, and high blood glucose independently predict mortality.
For a risk factor study, 98 consecutive patients admitted into the Department of Neurology, Oulu University Hospital, because of ICH between January 1993 and September 1995 were compared with 206 control subjects drawn from a population register. Thromboxane and prostacyclin biosynthesis were measured from serial urine samples of 43 patients. For outcome studies, all subjects (n = 208) with incident ICH during the study period in the population of Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland, were identified.
Untreated hypertension was the main modifiable risk factor for ICH. Use of aspirin appeared to be a significant risk factor for ICH in the subjects with a history of epistaxis. Enhanced thromboxane and prostacyclin biosynthesis were observed in the acute phase and 3 months after ICH. Regular use of aspirin preceding ICH doubled the 3-month mortality rate compared with nonusers of aspirin/warfarin. Aspirin use also associated with early hematoma growth. Patients with ICH showed increased long-term mortality up to 7 years after ICH compared to controls. No excess mortality was observed among those with good recovery at 3 months, but those who were severely disabled at 3 months after ICH showed marked excess mortality.
Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. D, Medica
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