Myocardial and cerebral preservation during off-pump coronary artery surgery
1University of Oulu, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Anaesthesiology
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.9 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:isbn:9514279735
|Publish Date:|| 2006-01-18
|Thesis type:||Doctoral Dissertation
|Defence Note:||Academic Dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, for public discussion in the Auditorium 1 of Oulu University Hospital, on January 28th, 2006, at 12 noon.
Professor Ari Harjula
Docent Markku Hynynen
Interest in off-pump coronary surgery and ischaemic preconditioning has been increasing. The aim of this study was to evaluate surrogate indicators of haemodynamic, myocardial, and cerebral outcome during off-pump surgery and preconditioning.
Haemodynamics and myocardial preservation were monitored in a pilot study of twelve patients undergoing off-pump coronary surgery. Indicators of myocardial metabolism and tissue injury as well as cerebral damage were evaluated in a randomized study of thirty-three patients undergoing on-pump (11) or off-pump surgery with (11) or without (11) preceding myocardial ischaemic preconditioning for five minutes followed by reperfusion for five minutes.
The pilot study showed minimal haemodynamic changes and myocardial derangements during off-pump surgery as evaluated intraoperatively based on transcardiac differences of ATP degradation products and lactate and postoperatively based on MB mass of creatine kinase and troponin T.
In the following studies, myocardial ischaemic metabolism was evaluated intraoperatively by measuring transcardiac differences of ATP degradation products, lactate, and pH, which increased significantly from the baseline values in all study groups. However, the maximum values of lactate and pH were significantly higher in the cardiopulmonary bypass group (p = 0.02 and p = 0.007, respectively). There were no statistical differences between the preconditioning and non-preconditioning groups. Myocardial tissue injury was evaluated by postoperative leakage of MB mass of creatine kinase and troponin I. Their peak values were significantly higher (p < 0.001 and p = 0.008) after cardiopulmonary bypass (15.1 μg/l and 13.8 μg/l) than after off-pump surgery without preconditioning (6.3 μg/l and 5.2 μg/l). The respective values were 14.8 μg/l and 7.4 μg/l after preconditioning, and there were no statistically significant differences between the off-pump groups with and without preconditioning. Cerebral damage was evaluated based on the intra- and postoperative serum concentrations of neuron-specific enolase, which were corrected with respect to haemolysis. The corrected values were significantly higher after on-pump than off-pump surgery (p = 0.003 and p = 0.005).
In conclusion, multi-vessel off-pump coronary artery surgery is a haemodynamically feasible procedure offering better myocardial preservation compared to on-pump surgery. Ischaemic preconditioning of the myocardium does not seem to improve myocardial preservation in off-pump surgery. The slightly lower levels of neuron-specific enolase also suggest less cerebral damage.
Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. D, Medica
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