University of Oulu

Functional and immunohistological studies on cancer-associated carbonic anhydrase IX

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Author: Leppilampi, Mari1,2
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Chemistry
2University of Oulu, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pathology
Format: ebook
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: 2006
Publish Date: 2006-02-07
Thesis type: Doctoral Dissertation
Defence Note: Academic Dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, for public discussion in the Auditorium 7 of Oulu University Hospital, on February 17th, 2006, at 12 noon
Reviewer: Docent Teuvo Hentunen
Professor Claudiu Supuran


The carbonic anhydrases (CAs) catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. In mammals, there are 13 active isoenzymes, which clearly differ in their cell localisation, tissue distributions and functions.

CA IX, a unique transmembrane member of the CA gene family, is a tumour-associated protein which is thought to be involved in malignant cell invasion, adhesion and the regulation of cell proliferation. The main focus in the present study was on elucidating the function and expression of CA IX in normal and malignant tissues, especially in the alimentary tract. The functional studies also included CA II, which is regarded as another important CA isoenzyme in the alimentary tract.

CA IX immunostaining showed a decrease in the staining intensity of gastric adenomas with increasing dysplasia grade. Well differentiated carcinomas of the intestinal type showed expression comparable to that in the normal mucosa, while expression was decreased in the less differentiated tumours. CA IX deficiency (Car9-/-) genotype and C57/BL6 strain were the main factors which increased the susceptibility of CA IX deficient mice fed on either a normal or high-salt diet to histological abnormalities, including foveolar hyperplasia and glandular atrophy in the gastric body mucosa, while CA II deficiency was associated with only minor histological abnormalities. In a physiological analysis, CA IX played only a minor role in duodenal bicarbonate secretion (DBS), whereas absence of CA II in mice completely abolished the stimulatory effect of E-type prostaglandin 2 (PGE2) on duodenal alkalisation.

The results demonstrate that CA IX expression is diminished in most gastric tumours. The variations observed in its expression support the concept that gastric adenomas and carcinomas do not emerge as progressive steps on a single pathway but may instead represent distinct entities with heterogenic genetic backgrounds. In the stomach, CA IX is mainly involved in the regulation of tissue morphogenesis in the body mucosa, while CA II has a major role in maintaining the gastroduodenal acid/base balance.

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Series: Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. D, Medica
ISSN-E: 1796-2234
ISBN: 951-42-7994-8
ISBN Print: 951-42-7993-X
Issue: 868
Copyright information: © University of Oulu, 2006. This publication is copyrighted. You may download, display and print it for your own personal use. Commercial use is prohibited.