University of Oulu

ERp57—Characterization of its domains and determination of solution structures of the catalytic domains

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Author: Silvennoinen, Laura1,2,3
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
2University of Oulu, Collagen Research Unit
3University of Oulu, Biocenter Oulu
Format: ebook
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 5 MB)
Persistent link: http://urn.fi/urn:isbn:9514280547
Language: English
Published: 2006
Publish Date: 2006-04-25
Thesis type: Doctoral Dissertation
Defence Note: Academic Dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, for public discussion in Auditorium of the Medipolis (Kiviharjuntie 11), on April 21st, 2006, at 12 noon
Reviewer: Professor Johannes Buchner
Professor Eric Quemeneur
Description:

Abstract

The correct three dimensional structures of proteins are essential for their ability to function properly. Proteins start to fold as soon as they are synthesized in the ribosomes from activated amino acids. Many secreted, cell-surface, secretory pathway and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumenal proteins have in their amino acid sequence cysteine residues which form intra- and intermolecular disulfide bridges that stabilize the overall fold of the proteins and protein complexes. The formation of correct disulfide bonds is a complex process which takes place within the ER.

Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is the key enzyme in the formation and rearrangement of correct disulfide bonds in the ER. It is an archetypal and the best studied member of the PDI family, i.e. a group of ER proteins that resemble thioredoxin (TRX), a protein reductase, in their structure. PDI has a four domain a-b-b'-a' structure the a and a' domains having the catalytic activity and amino acid sequence similarity to TRX. In addition to its function as a thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase, PDI acts as the β subunit in two protein complexes: collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylase (C-P4H) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP).

The closest homologue of PDI is the multifunctional enzyme and chaperone ERp57 that functions in concert with two lectins, calnexin (CNX) and calreticulin (CRT) specifically in the folding of proteins that have sugar moieties linked to them. ERp57 is 56% similar to PDI in its amino acid sequence and has also the four-domain architecture. Despite the high similarity in their structures ERp57 cannot substitute for PDI as the β subunit of C-P4H. The minimum requirement for the C-P4H tetramer assembly is fulfilled by domains b' and a' of PDI, while domains a and b enhance this function and can be substituted in part by those of ERp57.

Until very recently the structural information of any of the PDI family members, which contains the TRX active site was limited to solution structures of human PDI domains a and b. In this research the domain boundaries of the full length ERp57 were defined and the individual domains characterized. Furthermore the solution structures of the catalytically active domains a and a' of ERp57 were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).

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Series: Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. D, Medica
ISSN-E: 1796-2234
ISBN: 951-42-8054-7
ISBN Print: 951-42-8053-9
Issue: 873
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