Pd/Al2O3 -based automotive exhaust gas catalysts : the effect of BaO and OSC material on NOx reduction
1University of Oulu, Faculty of Technology, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering
2University of Oulu, Faculty of Technology, Mass and Heat Transfer Process Laboratory
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 1 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:isbn:9514280563
|Publish Date:|| 2006-05-02
|Thesis type:||Doctoral Dissertation
|Defence Note:||Academic Dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, for public discussion in Kuusamonsali (Auditorium YB210), Linnanmaa, on May 12th, 2006, at 12 noon
Professor Alexei V. Kucherov
Doctor Marina Lindblad
The aim of the thesis was to find new information on the effect of BaO and oxygen storage capacity material on NOx reduction. A total of nine different kinds of Pd/Al2O3-based metallic monoliths were studied. Promoters such as oxygen storage capacity material (OSC material in our case Cex-1ZrxO2 mixed oxides) and stabilisers such as barium (BaO) were added into the catalyst alone or together to improve catalyst properties such as catalytic activity, selectivity, and thermal stability.
The key aspects in this thesis can be divided into four parts. First, the behaviour of NO reduction and CO as well as C2H4 oxidation over Pd/Al2O3-based catalysts in rich, stoichiometric and lean conditions were studied. Secondly, the effect of BaO and the OSC material in NO reduction was considered. Thirdly, the preparation procedure, i.e. the addition order of BaO, OSC material, and Pd on the catalyst was considered. Finally, the effect of ageing on the behaviour of catalysts was investigated.
Several characterization methods (in situ DRIFT, catalytic activity measurements, N2 physisorption, CO chemisorption, dynamic oxygen storage capacity measurements, and X-ray diffraction (XRD)) were utilised to find answers to the behaviour of these catalysts in the studied model reactions. The Rapid Ageing Hot in Laboratory (RAHLAB) method was used to age the catalyst.
First, it was demonstrated that the CO and hydrocarbon oxidation and NO reduction reactions over the Pd/Al2O3-based catalyst behave differently. NO reduction and CO and hydrocarbon oxidation reactions were dependent on the reaction conditions and temperatures. Secondly, the effect of OSC and BaO on NO reduction was studied separately. In the case of OSC material, it was observed that the OSC material has an effect on NO reduction as well as on CO and C2H4 oxidation. In the case of BaO, it was observed that BaO has a positive effect on NO reduction as well as CO and C2H4 oxidation especially in rich conditions. Thirdly, the effects of the addition order of OSC and BaO on the catalyst was studied separately. It was shown that these have an effect on NO reduction, especially after ageing. First, on the fresh Pd/Al2O3 catalyst it was observed that the addition order of OSC on the catalyst has not an influence on catalyst performance. The effect of the BaO addition order on the Pd/OSC/Al2O3-based catalyst is found to be insignificant, especially, after the ageing process. Furthermore, it is observed that the effect of RAHLAB ageing was that the catalyst lost its catalytic activity, stability, and selectivity.
Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. C, Technica
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