PDZ-LIM domain proteins and α-actinin at the muscle Z-disk
1University of Oulu, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry
2University of Oulu, Biocenter Oulu
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|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:isbn:9514282647
|Publish Date:|| 2006-11-24
|Thesis type:||Doctoral Dissertation
|Defence Note:||Academic dissertation to be presented, with the assent of the Faculty of Science of the University of Oulu, for public defence in Auditorium TA105, Linnanmaa, on December 5th, 2006, at 14 noon
Professor Olli Carpén
Docent Tapio Heino
The Z-disk is a sophisticated structure that connects adjacent sarcomeres in striated muscle myofibrils. α-Actinin provides strength to the Z-disks by crosslinking the actin filaments of adjacent sarcomeres. α-Actinin is an antiparallel homodimer, composed of an N-terminal actin binding domain (ABD), the central rod domain, and two pairs of C-terminal EF-hands. The PDZ-LIM domain proteins interact with α-actinin at the Z-disk. Of these proteins, only the actinin-associated LIM protein (ALP), Z-band alternatively spliced PDZ-containing protein (ZASP/Cypher) and C-terminal LIM protein (CLP36) have a ZASP/Cypher-like (ZM) motif consisting of 26-27 conserved residues in the internal region between the PDZ and LIM domains. The aim of this work was to understand the molecular interplay between the ZM-motif containing members of the PDZ-LIM proteins and α-actinin. To unveil the biological relevance of the interaction between the PDZ-LIM proteins and α-actinin, naturally occurring human ZASP/Cypher mutations were analyzed.
Two interaction sites were found between ALP, CLP36 and α-actinin using recombinant purified proteins in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. The PDZ domain of ALP and CLP36 recognized the C-terminus of α-actinin, whereas the internal regions bound to the rod domain. Further characterization showed that the ALP internal region adopts and extended conformation when interacting with α-actinin and that the ZM-motif partly mediated the interaction, but did not define the entire interaction area. ZASP/Cypher also interacted and competed with ALP in binding to the rod domain. The internal fragments containing the ZM-motif were important for co-localization of ALP and ZASP/Cypher with α-actinin at the Z-disks and on stress fibers. The absence of ALP and ZASP/Cypher in focal contacts indicates that other interacting molecules, for instance vinculin and integrin, may compete in binding to the rod in these areas or additional proteins are required in targeting to these locations. The co-localization of the ZASP/Cypher with α-actinin could be released by disrupting the stress fibers leading to an accumulation of α-actinin in the cell periphery, whereas ZASP/Cypher was not in these areas. This suggests that an intact cytoskeleton is important for ZASP/Cypher interaction with α-actinin. Earlier studies have shown that mutations in the ZASP/Cypher internal region are associated with muscular diseases. These mutations, however, did not affect ZASP/Cypher co-localization with α-actinin or the stability of ZASP/Cypher proteins.
The Z-disk possesses a stretch sensor, which is involved in triggering hypertrophic growth as a compensatory mechanism to increased workloads. α-Actinin is a docking site of molecules that are involved in hypertrophic signaling cascades mediated by calsarcin-calcineurin and protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms. The internal interaction site may be involved in targeting PKCs, which bind to the LIM domains of ZASP/Cypher, to the Z-disks. The similar location of the internal interaction site with calsarcin on the rod suggests that ZASP/Cypher, ALP and CLP36 may regulate calsarcin-mediated hypertrophic signaling.
Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. A, Scientiae rerum naturalium
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