Endovascular treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm : mid-term results and management of a type II endoleak
1University of Oulu, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Diagnostics, Department of Diagnostic Radiology
2University of Oulu, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Surgery
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|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:isbn:9789514261343
|Publish Date:|| 2010-03-09
|Thesis type:||Doctoral Dissertation
|Defence Note:||Academic dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Oulu for public defence in Auditorium 7 of Oulu University Hospital, on 19 March 2010, at 12 noon
Docent Leo Keski-Nisula
Docent Jukka Saarinen
Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is a minimally invasive alternative to open surgery to exclude an abdominal aortic aneurysm from the circulation to avert a rupture. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the early and mid-term results of EVAR using the Zenith® stent-graft (Cook Inc, Bloomington, IN, USA) in asymptomatic and symptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients in three Finnish university hospitals. Furthermore, the aim was to study whether preoperative embolization of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) before EVAR decreases the incidence of a type II endoleak or has an effect on the aneurysm sac shrinkage. Finally, the results after secondary interventions for a type II endoleak were evaluated.
Two hundred six patients underwent elective endovascular repair of an intact AAA. The use of the Zenith® stent-graft was associated with good early and mid-term results. The thirty-day mortality rate (2.9%) was in accordance with other EVAR studies. Only one late aneurysm-related death occurred in this series, whilst no patients died of a late aneurysm rupture. No stent-graft migrations or fractures were observed. Endoleak, defined as persistent blood flow outside the graft and within the aneurysm sac, remains a long-term problem with EVAR. The overall endoleak incidence was 34.6%. A type II endoleak (retrograde perfusion via aortic side branches) occurred in 52 patients (25.4%).
EVAR was performed for 14 patients with a symptomatic, unruptured AAA. The median delay from admission to intervention was 4 days. EVAR of a symptomatic, unruptured AAA was associated with a favourable outcome even in patients with a very high operative risk. There were no perioperative deaths.
Altogether forty patients treated at Kuopio University Hospital had a patent IMA on preoperative computed tomography (CT) and were treated successfully with coil embolization before EVAR. Thirty-nine patients who underwent EVAR at Oulu University Hospital without preoperative embolization of a patent IMA served as a control group. Preoperative coil embolization of the IMA significantly reduced the incidence of type II endoleaks after EVAR, but the present study failed to show any influence on late postoperative aneurysm sac shrinkage.
Overall, 14 patients underwent a secondary intervention to repair the type II endoleak. Ten patients had transarterial embolization and four patients had translumbar embolization. The results were unsatisfactory; clinical success after the first secondary intervention was achieved in only two patients in the transarterial embolization group and three patients in the translumbar embolization group. These results seem to favour direct translumbar embolization rather than transarterial embolization.
In conclusion, EVAR with the Zenith® stent-graft is effective in excluding AAAs from the circulation and is associated with good mid-term results.
Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. D, Medica
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