Metabolism and interactions of pesticides in human and animal in vitro hepatic models
|Author:||Abass, Khaled M.|
|Organizations:||University of Oulu, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology
University of Oulu, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.7 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:isbn:9789514262999
|Publish Date:|| 2010-11-16
|Thesis type:||Doctoral Dissertation
|Defence Note:||Academic dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Oulu for public defence in the Auditorium of the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology (Aapistie 5 B), on 26 November 2010, at 12 noon
Professor Alan R. Boobis
Doctor Emanuela Testai
Risk assessment of chemicals needs reliable scientific information and one source of information is the characterization of the metabolic fate and toxicokinetics of a chemical. Metabolism is often the most important factor contributing to toxicokinetics. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are a superfamily of microsomal proteins playing a pivotal role in xenobiotic metabolism.
In the present study, pesticides were used as representative xenobiotics since exposure to pesticides is a global challenge to risk assessment. Human and animal in vitro hepatic models were applied with the advantage of novel analytical techniques (LC/TOF-MS and LC/MS-MS) to elucidate the in vitro metabolism and interaction of selected pesticides.
The results of these studies demonstrate that CYP enzymes catalyze the bioactivation of profenofos, diuron and carbosulfan into their more toxic metabolites desthiopropylprofenofos, N-demethyldiuron and carbofuran, respectively. The suspected carcinogenic metabolite of metalaxyl, 2,6-dimethylaniline, was not detected. CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 activities may be important in determining the toxicity arising from exposure to profenofos and carbosulfan. Individuals with high CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 activities might be more susceptible to diuron toxicity.
Qualitative results of in vitro metabolism were generally in agreement with the results obtained from the published in vivo data, at least for the active chemical moiety and major metabolites. Considerable differences in the quantities of the metabolites produced within the species, as well as in the ratios of the metabolites among the species, were observed.
These findings illustrate that in vitro screening of qualitative and quantitative differences are needed to provide a firm basis for interspecies and in vitro-in vivo extrapolations. Based on our findings, in vitro-in vivo extrapolation based on the elucidation of the in vitro metabolic pattern of pesticides in human and animal hepatic models could be a good model for understanding and extending the results of pesticides metabolism studies to human health risk assessment.
Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. D, Medica
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