Expression of lysyl hydroxylases and functions of lysyl hydroxylase 3 in mice
1University of Oulu, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry
2University of Oulu, Biocenter Oulu
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.8 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:isbn:9789514283819
|Publish Date:|| 2007-03-13
|Thesis type:||Doctoral Dissertation
|Defence Note:||Academic dissertation to be presented, with the assent of the Faculty of Science of the University of Oulu, for public defence in Raahensali (Auditorium L10), Linnanmaa, on March 23rd, 2007, at 12 noon
Docent Leila Risteli
Associate Professor Gerard Tromp
Lysyl hydroxylase (LH, EC 126.96.36.199) catalyzes the post-translational hydroxylation of lysyl residues in collagens and other proteins with collagenous domains. The hydroxylysyl residues participate in the formation of collagen cross-links, and some of the hydroxylysyl residues are further glycosylated. Three lysyl hydroxylase isoforms LH1, LH2 and LH3, encoded by three individual genes have been characterized and one isoform, LH3 is a multifunctional enzyme containing lysyl hydroxylase, collagen galactosyltransferase (GT, E.C. 188.8.131.52) and glucosyltransferase (GGT, E.C. 184.108.40.206) activities in vitro.
In this thesis the genes for the mouse lysyl hydroxylases were each mapped to a different chromosome. In addition, the roles of the lysyl hydroxylase isoforms were characterized in mice by studying their expression during development and the distribution of LH2 and LH3 in adult mice. The results revealed a widespread expression of the mouse lysyl hydroxylases during embryonic development whereas LH2 and LH3 showed tissue- or cell-specific expression patterns in the adult. Alternative splicing of the gene for LH2 also showed developmental and tissue-specific regulation.
The different functions of LH3 were studied in vivo by generating three different LH3 manipulated mouse lines. Analysis of the mouse lines revealed that LH3 has lysyl hydroxylase and glucosyltransferase activities in vivo, and that, in particular, the glucosyltransferase activity of LH3 is essential for normal development. The loss of glucosyltransferase activity caused disruption of basement membranes leading to embryonic lethality while the absence of lysyl hydroxylase activity led to ultrastructural alterations in muscle and basement membranes and disorganization of collagen fibrils. The disruption of basement membrane was due to an intracellular accumulation of unglycosylated type IV collagen, whereas the ultrastructural alterations were related to the abnormal aggregation and distribution of underglycosylated type VI collagen. The results demonstrate that hydroxylysine-linked glycosylations are critical for the secretion of type IV collagen and its assembly into basement membranes, and for the assembly and distribution of type VI collagen.
Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. A, Scientiae rerum naturalium
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