University of Oulu

Frequency domain model fitting and Volterra analysis implemented on top of harmonic balance simulation

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Author: Aikio, Janne P.1
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Faculty of Technology, Department of Electrical and Information Engineering
Format: ebook
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: 2007
Publish Date: 2007-04-24
Thesis type: Doctoral Dissertation
Defence Note: Academic dissertation to be presented, with the assent of the Faculty of Technology of the University of Oulu, for public defence in Raahensali (Auditorium L10), Linnanmaa, on May 4th, 2007, at 12 noon
Reviewer: Ph.D. Stephen A. Maas
Professor José Carlos Pedro


The modern wireless communication techniques are aiming on increasing bandwidth and the number of carriers for higher data rate. This sets challenging linearity requirements for RF power amplifiers (PAs). Unfortunately, high linearity can only be obtained at the cost of efficiency. In order to improve the performance of the PA, in-depth understanding of nonlinear behaviour is mandatory. This calls for techniques that can give componentwise information of the causes of the distortion. The aim of this thesis is to develop a technique that can provide such information.

This thesis proposes a detailed distortion analysis technique that is based on frequency domain fitting of polynomial models. Simulated large-signal spectra are used for fitting as these contain the necessary information about the large-signal bias point and amplitude range. Moreover, in the frequency domain the delays are easy to compensate, and detailed analysis to any fitted tone can be performed. The fitting procedure as such is simple but becomes difficult in multi-dimensional nonlinearities if the controlling voltages correlate strongly. In this thesis the solvability and reliability of the fitting procedure is increased by numerical operations, model-degree reduction and by using different excitations.

A simplified Volterra method is used to calculate the distortion contributions by using the fitted model. The overall distortion is analysed by calculating the voltage response of the contributions of each nonlinearity to the terminal nodes of the device by the use of linear transfer functions of the circuit. The componentwise analysis is performed by phasor presentation enabling the cancelling mechanisms to be seen.

The proposed technique is implemented on top of harmonic balance simulation in an APLAC circuit simulator in which extensive distortion simulations are performed. The technique relies on the existing device model and thus the fitted model can be only as accurate as the particular simulation model. However, two different RF PAs are analysed that show a good agreement between measurements and simulations.

The proposed technique is verified with several test cases including amplitude dependent amplitude and phase distortion, intermodulation distortion sweet spots, bandwidth dependent memory effects and impedance optimization. The main finding of the detailed analysis is that the distortion is a result of several cancelling mechanisms. In general, cubic nonlinearity of transconductance is dominating the in-band distortion but is cancelled by the 2nd-degree nonlinearity that is mixed to the fundamental band from envelope and 2nd harmonic bands that is usually the main cause of memory effects.

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Series: Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. C, Technica
ISSN-E: 1796-2226
ISBN: 978-951-42-8420-5
ISBN Print: 978-951-42-8419-9
Issue: 272
Copyright information: © University of Oulu, 2007. This publication is copyrighted. You may download, display and print it for your own personal use. Commercial use is prohibited.