Manufacturing, mechanical properties and corrosion behaviour of high-Mn TWIP steels
|Author:||Hamada, Atef Saad1|
1University of Oulu, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.4 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:isbn:9789514285844
|Publish Date:|| 2007-10-09
|Thesis type:||Doctoral Dissertation
|Defence Note:||Academic dissertation to be presented, with the assent of the Faculty of Technology of the University of Oulu, for public defence in Auditorium TA105, Linnanmaa, on October 19th, 2007, at 12 noon
Doctor Pasi Peura
Professor Javier Gil Sevillano
Austenitic high-Mn (15–30 wt.%) based twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steels provide great potential in applications for structural components in the automotive industry, owing to their excellent tensile strength-ductility property combination. In certain cases, these steels might also substitute austenitic Cr-Ni stainless steels. The aim of this present work is to investigate the high-temperature flow resistance, recrystallisation and the evolution of microstructure of high-Mn steels by compression testing on a Gleeble simulator. The influence of Al alloying (0–8 wt.%) in the hot rolling temperature range (800°C–1100°C) is studied in particular, but also some observations are made regarding the influence of Cr alloying. Microstructures are examined in optical and electron microscopes. The results are compared with corresponding properties of carbon and austenitic stainless steels. In addition, the mechanical properties are studied briefly, using tension tests over the temperature range from -80°C to 200°C. Finally, a preliminary study is conducted on the corrosion behaviour of TWIP steels in two media, using the potentiodynamic polarization technique.
The results show that the flow stress level of high-Mn TWIP steels is considerably higher than that of low-carbon steels and depends on the Al concentration up to 6 wt.%, while the structure is fully austenitic at hot rolling temperatures. At higher Al contents, the flow stress level is reduced, due to the presence of ferrite. The static recrystallisation kinetics is slower compared to that of carbon steels, but it is faster than is typical of Nb-microalloyed or austenitic stainless steels. The high Mn content is one reason for high flow stress as well as for slow softening. Al plays a minor role only; but in the case of austenitic-ferritic structure, the softening of the ferrite phase occurs very rapidly, contributing to overall faster softening. The high Mn content also retards considerably the onset of dynamic recrystallisation, but the influence of Al is minor. Similarly, the contribution of Cr to the hot deformation resistance and static and dynamic recrystallisation, is insignificant. The grain size effectively becomes refined by the dynamic and static recrystallisation processes.
The tensile testing of TWIP steels revealed that the Al alloying and temperature have drastic effects on the yield strength, tensile strength and elongation. The higher Al raises the yield strength because of the solid solution strengthening. However, Al tends to increase the stacking fault energy that affects strongly the deformation mechanism. In small concentrations, Al suppresses martensite formation and enhances deformation twinning, leading to high tensile strength and good ductility. However, with an increasing temperature, SFE increases, and consequently, the density of deformation twins decreases and mechanical properties are impaired.
Corrosion testing indicated that Al alloying improves the corrosion resistance of high-Mn TWIP steels. The addition of Cr is a further benefit for the passivation of these steels. The passive film that formed on 8wt.% Al-6wt.%Cr steel was found to be even more stable than that on Type 304 steel in 5–50% HNO3 solutions. A prolonged pre-treatment of the steel in the anodic passive regime created a thick, protective and stable passive film that enhanced the corrosion resistance also in 3.5% NaCl solution.
Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. C, Technica