Predictors of immediate outcome after coronary artery bypass surgery
1University of Oulu, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgery
2University of Oulu, Faculty of Medicine, Division of Cardio-thoracic and Vascular Surgery
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.9 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:isbn:9789514286339
|Publish Date:|| 2007-11-27
|Thesis type:||Doctoral Dissertation
|Defence Note:||Academic Dissertation to be presented, with the assent of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Oulu, for public defence in Auditorium 1 of Oulu University Hospital, on November 30th, 2007, at 12 noon
Docent Ulla-Stiina Salminen
Docent Tero Sisto
The identification of risk factors for major adverse events after coronary artery bypass surgery is of main importance as it allows outcome prediction, facilitates preoperative patient selection and improves the quality of care. In the present clinical studies we have evaluated the impact of preoperative angiographic severity of a coronary artery disease and preoperative C-reactive protein (CRP) on the immediate outcome after coronary artery bypass surgery. We have reviewed the results of off-pump (OPCAB) versus conventional on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (CCAB) in high risk patients. We have evaluated the impact of postoperative pulmonary artery blood temperature on the immediate outcome as well. In addition, we have investigated the incidence, timing and outcome of an atrial fibrillation (AF) related stroke after surgery.
The multivariate analysis showed that among 2233 patients, the overall coronary angiographic score was predictive of postoperative death (p = 0.03; OR 1.027, 95% CI: 1.003–1.052) and of a low cardiac output syndrome (p = 0.04; OR 1.172, 95% CI: 1.010–1.218). The poor status of the proximal segment of the left circumflex coronary artery, the diagonal branches and the left obtuse marginal artery were most closely associated with adverse postoperative outcome.
Patients (114/764) with a preoperative serum concentration of CRP ≥ 1.0 mg/dL had a higher risk of overall postoperative death (5.3% vs. 1.1%, p = 0.001), cardiac death (4.4% vs. 0.8%, p = 0.002), a low cardiac output syndrome (8.8% vs. 3.7%, p = 0.01).
Among 179 high risk patients with an additive EuroSCORE6, the 30-day postoperative death and stroke rates were 7.5% and 6.0% in the OPCAB group, and 5.4% (p = 0.75) and 8.0% (p = 0.77) in the CCAB group, respectively. No significant differences were observed in other major outcome end-points between these non-randomised groups either.
High pulmonary artery blood temperature on admission to the ICU among 1639 patients was significantly associated with an increased risk of overall postoperative death (p = 0.002), cardiac death (p = 0.03), and a low cardiac output syndrome (p < 0.0001), and was significantly correlated with prolonged length of the ICU stay (r = 0.095; p < 0.0001), and postoperative bleeding (ρ = –0.091; p = 0.001).
Among 2,630 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 52 (2.0%) experienced a postoperative stroke. Twelve out of these 52 patients (23.1%) died postoperatively. The ischemic cerebral event occurred after a mean of 3.7 days (0–33). In 19 patients (36.5%), atrial fibrillation preceded the occurrence of neurological complication.
The angiographic severity of the coronary artery disease and the preoperative serum concentration of CRP predict postoperative outcome after a CABG operation. OPCAB can be performed safely in high-risk patients with results as satisfactory as those achieved with CCAB. CABG patients with a high pulmonary artery blood temperature on admission to the ICU seem to have a higher risk of postoperative adverse events. Atrial fibrillation occurring after coronary artery bypass grafting is a major determinant of a postoperative stroke.
Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. D, Medica
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