University of Oulu

Substrate specificity of lysyl hydroxylase isoforms and multifunctionality of lysyl hydroxylase 3

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Author: Risteli, Maija1,2,3
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry
2University of Oulu, Biocenter Oulu
3University of Kuopio, Finnish National Glycoscience Graduate School, Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Anatomy
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Version: published version
Access: open
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Language: English
Published: 2008
Publish Date: 2008-07-19
Thesis type: Doctoral Dissertation
Defence Note: Academic dissertation to be presented, with the assent of the Faculty of Science of the University of Oulu, for public defence in Raahensali (Auditorium L10), Linnanmaa, on August 8th, 2008, at 12 noon
Reviewer: Professor Leena Bruckner-Tuderman
Professor Helena Kuivaniemi


Lysyl hydroxylase (LH) catalyzes the post-translational formation of hydroxylysines in collagens and collagenous proteins. Three lysyl hydroxylase isoforms, LH1, LH2 and LH3, have been identified from different species. In addition, LH2 has two alternatively spliced forms, LH2a and LH2b. The hydroxylysines have an important role in the formation of the intermolecular collagen crosslinks that stabilize the collagen fibrils. Some of the hydroxylysine residues are further glycosylated.

In this thesis the substrate amino acid sequence specificities of the LH isoforms were analyzed using synthetic peptide substrates. The data did not indicate strict amino acid sequence specificity for the LH isoforms. However, there seemed to be a preference for some sequences to be bound and hydroxylated by a certain isoform.

Galactosylhydroxylysyl glucosyltransferase (GGT) catalyzes the formation of glucosylgalactosylhydroxylysine. In this study, LH3 was shown to be a multifunctional enzyme, possessing LH and GGT activities. The DXD-like motif, characteristic of many glycosyltransferase families, and the conserved cysteine and leucine residues in the N-terminal part of the LH3 molecule were critical for the GGT activity, but not for the LH activity of the molecule.

The GGT/LH3 protein level was found to be decreased in skin fibroblasts and in the culture media of cells collected from members of a Finnish epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) family, which was earlier reported to have a deficiency of GGT activity. In this study, we showed that the reduction of enzyme activity is not due to a mutation or lower expression of the LH3 gene. Our data indicate that the decreased GGT/LH3 activity in cells has an effect on the deposition and organization of the key extracellular matrix components, collagen types VI and I and fibronectin, and these changes are transmitted to the cytoskeletal network. These findings underline LH3 as an important extracellular regulator.

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Series: Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. A, Scientiae rerum naturalium
ISSN-E: 1796-220X
ISBN: 978-951-42-8829-6
ISBN Print: 978-951-42-8828-9
Issue: 511
Copyright information: © University of Oulu, 2008. This publication is copyrighted. You may download, display and print it for your own personal use. Commercial use is prohibited.