University of Oulu

Sulfide-poor platinum-group element deposits : a mineralogical approach with case studies and examples from the literature

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Author: Kaukonen, Risto1
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Faculty of Science, Department of Geosciences
Format: ebook
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: 2008
Publish Date: 2008-11-11
Thesis type: Doctoral Dissertation
Defence Note: Academic dissertation to be presented, with the assent of the Faculty of Science of the University of Oulu, for public defence in Auditorium GO101, Linnanmaa, on November 21st, 2008, at 12 noon
Reviewer: Professor Fernando Gervilla
Professor Bernhard Saini-Eidukat


Sulfide-poor deposits of platinum-group elements (PGE) occur in two main types: silicate-type and oxide-type. In the silicate-type mineralization PGE form discrete platinum-group minerals (PGM) that occur as inclusions in various silicate minerals. In the oxide-type mineralization PGM may have different modes of occurrence. They may be associated with silicates or they may occur as inclusions in chromite, magnetite or ilmenite, for example. In some cases they may even be associated with base metal sulfides.

The approach chosen in this work is mainly a mineralogical one. PGM parageneses, their modes of occurrence and associations with other minerals were studied from different deposits. These are then compared to some well-recorded examples of PGE deposits.

The case studies presented, the Duluth Complex in Minnesota, U.S.A., the Hanumalapur Complex in Karnataka, India, and the Penikat Layered Intrusion in northern Finland, are examples that illustrate the multitude of possibilities regarding PGE mineralization versus the traditional approach where any significant quantities of PGE are supposed to occur only in association with base metal sulfides.

As the traditional orthomagmatic and hydrothermal models cannot explain the genesis of some sulfide-poor PGE occurrences, a new theory of PGE mineralization was developed. This “redox theory” is an attempt at explaining the association of PGE with various oxide minerals, most importantly chromite.

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Series: Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. A, Scientiae rerum naturalium
ISSN-E: 1796-220X
ISBN: 978-951-42-8954-5
ISBN Print: 978-951-42-8953-8
Issue: 516
Copyright information: © University of Oulu, 2008. This publication is copyrighted. You may download, display and print it for your own personal use. Commercial use is prohibited.