Expression of lysyl hydroxylases and characterization of a novel disorder caused by mutations in the lysyl hydroxylase 3 gene
1University of Oulu, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry
2University of Oulu, Biocenter Oulu
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.4 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:isbn:9789514291739
|Publish Date:|| 2009-08-18
|Thesis type:||Doctoral Dissertation
|Defence Note:||Academic dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Faculty of Science of the University of Oulu for public defence in Kuusamonsali (Auditorium YB210), Linnanmaa, on 28 August 2009, at 12 noon
Professor Ruud A. Bank
Docent Raija Tammi
Collagens and collagenous proteins undergo several post-translational modifications that are important for their structure and functions. Lysine hydroxylation produces hydroxylysines, which are important for collagen cross-link formation and provide attachment sites for galactose and glucosylgalactose. Glycosylated hydroxylysines are crucial for embryonic development and the assembly of certain collagen types. They may also facilitate interactions between collagen and adjacent molecules as well as control the diameter of collagen fibrils. Lysine hydroxylation is catalyzed by three lysyl hydroxylases (LH1, LH2 and LH3). In addition to lysyl hydroxylase activity, LH3 possesses collagen galactosyltransferase (GT) and glucosyltransferase (GGT) activities.
In this study, polyclonal antibodies against the lysyl hydroxylase isoforms were produced for protein level studies to localize the expression and understand the functions of the different isoenzymes. The results indicated ubiquitous expression during embryonic development compared to the more restricted, cell and tissue specific expression patterns observed in adult mouse tissues. Differences were seen also in the alternative splicing of LH2 during embryogenesis and between tissue types. Analyses of the subcellular localization revealed that LH3 is also present in extracellular space. Tissue and cell specific differences were noted in the distribution of LH3 between cellular compartments. Substrate analysis suggested an additional and novel role for LH3 as an enzyme catalyzing lysine modifications of collagenous proteins in the extracellular space.
The importance of LH1 and LH2 has been highlighted in Ehlers-Danlos type VI and Bruck syndromes, respectively. In this study, the lysyl hydroxylase 3 gene was linked to a heritable disorder for the first time. Urinary screening revealed a patient that lacked a glucosylgalactosyl derivative of a pyridinium cross-link. The GGT activity levels measured from the patient’s serum and lymphoblastoid cells were also reduced, which suggested a defect in the lysyl hydroxylase 3 gene. Genetic analyses revealed two mutations, one in each allele of LH3 in this compound heterozygous patient. Recombinant mutant proteins showed defects in lysyl hydroxylase and collagen glycosyltransferase activities, respectively. In conclusion, it was shown that a defect in LH3 catalyzed modifications leads to a novel disorder, which shares features with many other connective tissue disorders.
Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. A, Scientiae rerum naturalium
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