Structural and enzymological studies of the thiolase enzymes
1University of Oulu, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry
2University of Oulu, Biocenter Oulu
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.4 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:isbn:9789514291982
|Publish Date:|| 2009-08-25
|Thesis type:||Doctoral Dissertation
|Defence Note:||Academic dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Faculty of Science of the University of Oulu for public defence in Raahensali (Auditorium L10), Linnanmaa, on 4 September 2009, at 12 noon
Professor Edward Hough
Professor Reijo Lahti
In the cells, the last step of the beta-oxidation cycle, aiming at the degradation of fatty acids, is catalyzed by the enzyme named thiolase. It shortens the acyl chain of the acyl-CoA by two carbons. The reaction is reversible, it can proceed for both directions. Thiolases are divided into two categories, synthetic and degradative ones. These two classes of thiolases differ not only by their biological function, but also by their substrate specificity. Degradative thiolases accept substrates with various lengths but synthetic thiolases only accept short chain-acyl-CoAs as a substrate.
In humans, at least six isozymes of thiolases are found. The mitochondrial biosynthetic thiolase, T2, differs from other thiolases by getting activated by potassium. In addition, it accepts branched acyl-CoA, namely 2-methyl-acetoacetyl-CoA, as a substrate. This molecule is an important reaction intermediate in the degradation of the amino acid isoleucine. Many human patients have been diagnosed to have a mutation in the gene of T2, and they are treated with a special diet.
The results of this theses show that potassium ion rigidifies the groups of the T2 protein involved in the substrate binding. The presence of potassium increases the reaction rate and it also raises the affinity towards some of the substrates.
The enzyme mechanistic studies with bacterial thiolase revealed that the oxyanion hole 1, formed by a water molecule and histidine side chain, is important for the synthetic reaction, not so much for the degradative direction. Binding studies showed that both the terminal sulfur of the substrate and the sulfur of the catalytic cysteine are important for the right positioning of the substrate. The electrostatics of the active site also have a significant role in the catalysis. These studies give a good basis for future studies aiming at drug development against this enzyme in pathogenic species.
Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. A, Scientiae rerum naturalium
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