Managing erosion, sediment transport and water quality in drained peatland catchments
1University of Oulu, Faculty of Technology, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.4 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:isbn:9789514293306
Oulu : University of Oulu,
|Publish Date:|| 2011-01-04
|Thesis type:||Doctoral Dissertation
|Defence Note:||Academic dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Faculty of Technology of the University of Oulu for public defence in OP-sali (Auditorium L10), Linnanmaa, on 14 January 2011, at 12 noon
Professor Bjørn Kløve
Doctor Martin Evans
Professor Micheal Stone
Peatland drainage changes catchment conditions and increases the transport of suspended solids (SS) and nutrients. New knowledge and management methods are needed to reduce SS loading from these areas. This thesis examines sediment delivery and erosion processes in a number of peatland drainage areas and catchments in order to determine the effects of drainage on sediment and erosion dynamics and mechanics. Results from studies performed in peat mining, peatland forestry and disturbed headwater catchments in Finland are presented and potential sediment load management methods are discussed for drainage areas and headwater brooks. Particular attention is devoted to erosion of organic peat, sediment transport and methods to reduce the impacts of peatland drainage in boreal headwaters.
This thesis consists of six articles. The first and second papers focus on the erosion and sediment transport processes at peat harvesting and peatland forestry drainage networks. The results indicate that in-channel processes are important in drained peatland, since the drainage network often constitutes temporary inter-storm storage for eroding and transporting material. Sediment properties determine the bed sediment erosion sensitivity, as fluffy organic peat sediment consolidates over time. As flashiness and peak runoff control sediment entrainment and transport from drained peatland areas, water quality management should include peak runoff management.
The third, fourth and fifth papers studies use and application of peak runoff control (PRC) method to the peat harvesting and peatland forestry conditions for water protection. Results indicate that effective water quality management in drained peatland areas can be achieved using this method. Installation of the PRC structures is a useful and cost-effective way of storing storm runoff waters temporarily in the ditch system and providing a retention time for eroded sediment to settle to the ditch bed and drainage network. The main effect of the PRC is on SS and SS-bound nutrients.
The sixth paper is concentrated to test new restoration structure to be used in degraded headwater brooks. The results show that addition of woody restoration structures to the channel is effective and simple sediment management methods in headwater areas.
New information provided in this thesis on sediment erosion and transport processes in drained peatland areas can help to improve water quality control in these areas. In-channel processes are important for both peatland uses, since the drainage network often constitutes temporary inter-storm storage for eroding and transporting material. Therefore, controlling these processes is a key to effective water quality management, which can be achieved using the PRC method in drainage areas or by utilisation of natural fluvial processes in natural channels downstream.
Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. C, Technica
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