Computational studies of NMR and magneto-optical rotation parameters in water
|Pennanen, Teemu S.1
1University of Oulu, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics
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|Academic dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Faculty of Science, University of Oulu, for public discussion in the Auditorium YB210, on December 12th 2011, at 12 o’clock noon.
Professor Ralf Ludwig
Doctor Magdalena Pecul-Kudelska
Professor Ralf Ludwig
Professor Juha Vaara
In this thesis nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magneto-optical rotation (MOR) parameters are investigated for water, paying special attention to the effect of solvation from gaseous to liquid phase. Nuclear magnetic shielding and quadrupole coupling tensors of NMR spectroscopy are studied for gaseous and liquid water. Liquid state is modelled by a 32-molecule Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulation, followed by property calculations for the central molecules in clusters cut out from the simulation trajectory. Gaseous state is similarly represented by a one-molecule simulation. Gas-to-liquid shifts for shielding constants obtained this way are in good agreement with experiments. To get insight into the local environment and its effect on the properties the clusters are divided into groups of distinct local features, namely the number of hydrogen bonds. The analysis shows in detail how the NMR tensors evolve as the environment changes gradually from the gas to liquid upon increasing the number of hydrogen bonds to the molecule of interest. The study sheds light on the usefulness of NMR experiments in investigating the local coordination of liquid water. To go a bit further, the above mentioned NMR parameters along with the spin-spin coupling constant are examined for water dimer in various geometries to have insight into solvation and hydrogen bonding phenomena from bottom to top. Characteristic changes in the properties are monitored as the geometry of the dimer is systematically varied from very close encounter of the monomers to distances and orientations where hydrogen bonding between monomers ceases to exist. No rapid changes during the hydrogen bond breaking are observed indicating that the hydrogen bonding is a continuous phenomenon rather than an on-off situation. However, for analysis purposes we provide an NMR-based hydrogen bond definition, expressed geometrically, based on the behaviour of the NMR properties as a function of dimer geometry. Our definition closely resembles widely used definitions and thus reinforces their validity.
Magneto-optical rotation parameters, the nuclear spin optical rotation (NSOR) and the Verdet constant, are computed for gaseous and liquid water, in the same manner as the NMR properties above. Recent pioneering experiments including NSOR for hydrogen nuclei in liquid water and liquid xenon have demonstrated that this technique has a potential to be a useful new probe of molecular structure. We reproduce computationally, applying a first-principles theory developed recently in the group, the experimental NSOR for hydrogen nuclei in liquid water, and predict hydrogen NSOR in gaseous water along with the oxygen NSOR in liquid and gaseous water. NSOR is an emerging experimental technique that needs interplay between theory and computation for validation, steering and insight.
Report series in physical sciences
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