Design, construction and commissioning of the EMMA experiment
1University of Oulu, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics and Chemistry
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 9.3 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:isbn:9789526205694
|Publish Date:|| 2014-10-28
|Thesis type:||Doctoral Dissertation
|Defence Note:||Academic dissertation to be presented, with the permission of the Faculty of Science of the University of Oulu, for public discussion in the Auditorium TS101, Linnanmaa, on November 7th, 2014, at 12 o’clock noon.
Doctor Andreas Haungs
Doctor Jacek Szabelski
Doctor Bruno Alessandro
Professor Kalevi Mursula
The work describes the design, construction and commissioning of the underground cosmic-ray experiment Experiment with MultiMuon Array (EMMA). The experiment is built into the Pyhäsalmi mine, in the town of Pyhäjärvi, Finland. The aim of EMMA is to determine the elemental composition of cosmic rays at an energy region around 4 PeV, the energy region called the ’knee’ region. This is achieved by measuring the lateral density distribution of high-energy muons originating from Extensive Air Showers (EAS).
The design calculations for the EMMA experiment, which are based on the use of the parametrization of the lateral density distribution of muons, the method of shower reconstruction, and the energy and composition indicators, are presented. A strategy for reconstructing the composition of the cosmic rays is presented and it demonstrates the potential of applying unfolding techniques to the EMMA data. The effect of an array extension on the performance of EMMA is studied.
The hardware used in the EMMA experiment is presented starting with an overview of the array and its detector stations. The EMMA array employs three different particle detectors, for which the main technical properties are given, and their use in the EMMA array is presented. A description of the infrastructure of the experiment is given and the rock overburden at the EMMA site at the depth of 80 metres is documented.
The work contains the latest analysis of EAS data recorded by the tracking detectors of the experiment, which demonstrates that the experiment is taking data as planned and that the data are according to EAS physics expectations. Methods for event selection and tracking efficiency correction are presented, after which the analysis results of measured track multiplicity spectra are given. The shape of the recorded multiplicity spectrum indicates that the simplest model of a knee-like spectrum with a pure proton composition can not explain the data and that further analysis of the spectrum is required.
Report series in physical sciences
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