University of Oulu

Strong radiation-matter interaction in a driven superconducting quantum system

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Author: Pietikäinen, Iivari1,2
Organizations: 1University of Oulu Graduate School
2University of Oulu, Faculty of Science, Physics
Format: ebook
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 5.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Oulu : University of Oulu, 2019
Publish Date: 2019-04-18
Thesis type: Doctoral Dissertation
Defence Note: Academic Dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Faculty of Science, University of Oulu, for public discussion in Auditorium L7, on May 3rd, 2019, at 12 o’clock.
Tutor: Professor Erkki Thuneberg
Docent Jani Tuorila
Reviewer: Professor Göran Johansson
Professor Jens Koch
Opponent: Professor Zaki Leghtas
Kustos: Professor Erkki Thuneberg


In this thesis we study the interaction between radiation and matter using superconducting circuits that behave analogously with the conventional photon-atom interaction in quantum optics. The research is done with a system consisting of a waveguide resonator (radiation) strongly coupled to a transmon device (matter). We focus on the phenomena caused by strong coupling between the radiation and matter, and by driving the resonator to higher excited states with a strong monochromatic radiation. These have been studied little in the traditional radiation-matter systems. Increasing the strength of the monochromatic radiation drive, the dynamics of the system experiences a transition from the quantum to the classical regime. Also, the free-particle states of the transmon start being populated.

In the weak driving limit, the transmon can be regarded as a two-state system. As a consequence, the resonator-transmon system is conventionally discussed in terms of the linear Jaynes–Cummings model. However, for strong coupling the Bloch–Siegert shift, caused by the terms neglected in the Jaynes–Cummings model, is strong and the Jaynes–Cummings model is insufficient for describing the dynamics of the system.

We study the effects caused by strong coupling and the excitation of the higher transmon states instigated by the driving of the resonator. With reflection spectroscopy, we measure the absorption spectrum of the system and compare this with the spectrum calculated numerically using the Floquet–Born–Markov approach. We find that, in the region of the quantum-to-classical transition, the two-state approximation for the transmon is insufficient and the higher transmon states are necessary for accurate simulations. By calculating the average resonator occupation, we compare different numerical models: the Lindblad master equation, the Floquet–Born–Markov, and the semiclassical model.

Coupling a transmon to a resonator shifts the energy levels of the resonator. This shift in the energy levels prevents the higher resonator states from being populated if the system is weakly driven with a frequency that is near the resonance frequency of the resonator. We simulate this photon blockade numerically and show that the blockade is substantially different for the two-state and multistate transmon approximations.

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Osajulkaisut / Original papers

Osajulkaisut eivät sisälly väitöskirjan elektroniseen versioon / Original papers are not included in the electronic version of the dissertation.

  1. Pietikäinen, I., Danilin, S., Kumar, K. S., Vepsäläinen, A., Golubev, D. S., Tuorila, J., & Paraoanu, G. S. (2017). Observation of the Bloch-Siegert shift in a driven quantum-to-classical transition. Physical Review B, 96(2).

    Rinnakkaistallennettu versio / Self-archived version

  2. Pietikäinen, I., Danilin, S., Kumar, K. S., Tuorila, J., & Paraoanu, G. S. (2018). Multilevel Effects in a Driven Generalized Rabi Model. Journal of Low Temperature Physics, 191(5–6), 354–364.

    Rinnakkaistallennettu versio / Self-archived version

  3. Pietikäinen, I., Tuorila, J., Golubev, D. S., & Paraoanu, G. S. (2019) Quantum-to-classical transition in the driven-dissipative Josephson pendulum coupled to a resonator. Manuscript submitted for publication.

    Rinnakkaistallennettu versio / Self-archived version

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Series: Report series in physical sciences
ISSN: 1239-4327
ISSN-L: 1239-4327
ISBN: 978-952-62-2247-9
ISBN Print: 978-952-62-2246-2
Issue: 125
Type of Publication: G5 Doctoral dissertation (articles)
Field of Science: 114 Physical sciences
Copyright information: © University of Oulu, 2019. This publication is copyrighted. You may download, display and print it for your own personal use. Commercial use is prohibited.