Advanced liquid and gas NMR methods for probing topical materials
|Author:||Javed, Muhammad Asadullah1,2|
1University of Oulu Graduate School
2University of Oulu, Faculty of Science, Physics
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.1 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:isbn:9789526222493
Oulu : University of Oulu,
|Publish Date:|| 2019-05-20
|Thesis type:||Doctoral Dissertation
|Defence Note:||Academic dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Doctoral Training Committee of Technology and Natural Sciences of the University of Oulu for public discussion in the Auditorium L10, Linnanmaa, on June 14th, 2019, at 12 o’ clock noon.
Docent Camilla Terenzi
Doctor Indrek Reile
Senior Lecturer Melanie Britton
Professor Ville-Veikko Telkki
The present thesis exploits advanced liquid and gas NMR methods for the characterization of various interesting materials. The methods used to study the structural properties of thermally modified wood, ionic liquids, cements, shales, and porous organic cages include MRI, NMR cryoporometry, Laplace NMR, multidimensional Laplace NMR, as well as ¹²⁹Xe and ¹⁹F NMR. The commonality factor in all the studies is the usage of either inherent or introduced liquid or gas molecules to probe the topical materials.
The MRI method was utilized to visualize the water absorption phenomena in the thermally modified pine wood. High-resolution images made it possible to observe the spatial distribution of free water and the changes in the rate of absorption of water in wood samples modified at different temperatures. The images also helped to resolve the individual resin channels. T₂ maps enabled us to observe the changes in the relaxation values of free water in thermally modified wood as compared to their unmodified reference wood samples.
The multidimensional Laplace NMR methods were exploited to study the structural and dynamical properties of a novel halogen-free, boron-based ionic liquid (hf-BIL). NMR self-diffusion (D) experiments showed the presence of two coexisting dynamic phases in hf-BIL. Multidimensional D − T₂ correlation experiments made it possible to determine the T₂ relaxation times of the slow and fast diffusing phases. T₂ − T₂ relaxation exchange measurements allowed quantifying the exchange rates of anions and cations between the phases. Moreover, the theoretical modeling of the experimental data revealed that the slow diffusing phase was composed of anion-cation aggregates, while the fast diffusing phase was comprised of free anions and cations.
¹²⁹Xe NMR analysis of the xenon adsorbed in the cements and shales helped us to determine their porous structures. The method exploits the high sensitivity of the chemical shift of ¹²⁹Xe to its local environment. The chemical shift value of ¹²⁹Xe enabled us to estimate the size of the mesopores in the cement samples. The exchange spectroscopy (EXSY) measurements were used to determine the exchange rates between the free gas and mesopores of the cement samples. ¹²⁹Xe NMR spectra of the shale samples provided information about pore sizes and paramagnetic compounds. ¹H NMR cryoporometry measurements of the shale samples immersed in acetonitrile made it possible to analyze the pore size distribution ranging from 10 to over 100 nm. Moreover, T₂ − T₂ exchange measurements helped us to quantify the exchange rates of acetonitrile in the shale samples.
Xenon and SF₆ were used as internal reporters to gain versatile information on adsorption phenomena in the cage and window cavities of the crystalline porous organic cages. ¹²⁹Xe NMR analysis of the adsorbed xenon helped us to determine the diffusion coefficients and activation energy of diffusion as well as thermodynamic parameters. With the help of T₂ relaxation time values, it was possible to estimate the exchange rates between cage and window cavities. Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) experiments resolved a window cavity site, which arises from crystal defects in porous organic cages. In addition, ¹⁹F NMR analysis made it possible to estimate the relaxation rates and diffusion coefficients of SF₆ gas in porous organic cages. Modelling of the T₁, T₂ and diffusion data confirmed that the cage to window exchange is the completely dominating mechanism for ¹²⁹Xe T₂ relaxation. T₁ relaxation is dominated by diffusion modulated dipole-dipole relaxation (DDinter) and chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) relaxation due to local cavity mobility. Whereas, in case of SF₆ T₂ data, the dominating mechanism is diffusion modulated dipole-dipole relaxation and for T₁ the local tumbling of SF₆ in cage cavity is the key dynamics behind the dipole-dipole and CSA mechanisms.
The original publications are not included in the electronic version of the dissertation.
Report series in physical sciences
|Type of Publication:||
G5 Doctoral dissertation (articles)
|Field of Science:||
114 Physical sciences
116 Chemical sciences
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