University of Oulu

Vanadium removal and recovery from liquid waste streams

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Author: Zhang, Ruichi1,2
Organizations: 1University of Oulu Graduate School
2University of Oulu, Faculty of Technology, Process Engineering, Chemical Process Engineering (CPE)
Format: ebook
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.9 MB)
Persistent link: http://urn.fi/urn:isbn:9789526232690
Language: English
Published: Oulu : University of Oulu, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-04-28
Thesis type: Doctoral Dissertation
Defence Note: Academic dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Doctoral Programme Committee of Technology and Natural Sciences of the University of Oulu for public defence in the Arina auditorium (TA105), Linnanmaa, on 6 May 2022, at 12 noon
Tutor: Docent Tiina Leiviskä
Professor Juha Tanskanen
Reviewer: Professor Eveliina Hanne Repo
Associate Professor Doris van Halem
Opponent: Associate Professor Marjatta Louhi-Kultanen
Description:

Abstract

Vanadium is an important and strategic metal that has been widely used in many technological fields. Its consumption has significantly increased during recent decades. Therefore, primary resources are considered insufficient to satisfy demand and many countries are looking for alternative resources for vanadium production. At the same time, the over-limit discharge of vanadium into water systems has raised concerns.

This work deals with vanadium removal and recovery from liquid waste streams. In the current study, novel sorbents were developed for vanadium removal from water and evaluated for vanadium sorption from mining-influenced water using different iron-based products in both batch and column mode. A pilot-scale field study was conducted at a closed mine site to remove vanadium from mining-influenced water using ferric oxyhydroxide sorbent (CFH-12). The possibility of recovering vanadium from used CFH-12 was investigated by a two-step process including desorption and precipitation.

The developed novel sorbents, iron-modified peat and quaternized pine bark, effectively removed vanadium from synthetic solutions. The maximum vanadium sorption capacity of iron-modified peat and quaternized pine bark was 16.3 mg/g and 34.3 mg/g (pH 4), respectively. The kinetics of the sorption followed the Elovich model for both products, indicating the chemisorption mechanism. In the case of mining-influenced water, the lab-scale results revealed that vanadium can be efficiently removed by iron sorbents. The Elovich model provided a good fit to the batch sorption data and the vanadium sorption process was significantly controlled by both film and intra-particle diffusion. The Thomas and Yoon-Nelson column models were found to fit the experimental data from the packed columns fairly well. The pilot study at the mine site confirmed that filter systems placed in different streams were capable of capturing vanadium from the vanadium-polluted streams. More importantly, vanadium could be successfully recovered from the spent sorbent (CFH-12) collected from the pilot study, which provides valuable information for vanadium production from alternative resources.

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Tiivistelmä

Vanadiini on tärkeä metalli, jota on käytetty laajasti monilla tekniikan aloilla. Vanadiinin kulutus on lisääntynyt merkittävästi viime vuosikymmeninä. Tästä syystä primääriraaka-aineita on pidetty riittämättöminä vastaamaan vanadiinin kysyntää ja monet maat etsivät vaihtoehtoisia lähteitä vanadiinin tuotantoon. Toisaalta vanadiinin joutuminen vesistöihin on herättänyt huolta.

Tämän työn tavoitteena on vanadiinin poisto ja talteenotto jätevesistä. Tässä tutkimuksessa kehitettiin uusia sorbentteja vanadiinin poistamiseen vedestä ja arvioitiin vanadiinin sorption tehokkuutta kaivosvedestä käyttämällä erilaisia rautapohjaisia tuotteita sekä panos- että kolonnisysteemissä. Laboratoriokokeiden jälkeen suljetulla kaivosalueella suoritettiin pilot-mittakaavan kenttätutkimus vanadiinin poistamiseksi kaivosvedestä käyttämällä ferrioksihydroksidisorbenttia (CFH-12). Vanadiinin talteenottoa käytetystä CFH-12:sta tutkittiin kaksivaiheisella prosessilla, joka sisältää desorption ja saostuksen.

Kehitetyt uudet sorbentit, rautamodifioitu turve ja orgaanisella yhdisteellä modifioitu männyn kuori, poistivat tehokkaasti vanadiinia synteettisistä liuoksista. Rautamodifioidun turpeen ja modifioidun männyn kuoren maksimisorptiokyvyt vanadiinille olivat 16.3 mg/g ja 34.3 mg/g (pH 4). Sorption kinetiikka noudatti molemmilla tuotteilla Elovichin mallia, joka viittaa kemisorptiomekanismiin. Kaivosveden laboratoriomittakaavan kokeissa saatiin selville, että vanadiini voidaan poistaa tehokkaasti rautasorbenteilla. Kolonnikokeiden data noudatti melko hyvin Thomasin ja Yoon-Nelsonin malleja. Pilot-kokeet vahvistivat, että eri virtoihin sijoitetut suodatinjärjestelmät pystyivät poistamaan vanadiinia kaivosvedestä tehokkaasti. Lisäksi pilot-tutkimuksesta kerätystä käytetystä sorbentista (CFH-12) saatiin onnistuneesti talteen vanadiini, joka tarjoaa arvokasta tietoa vanadiinituotannon vaihtoehtoisista raaka-ainelähteistä.

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Osajulkaisut / Original papers

Osajulkaisut eivät sisälly väitöskirjan elektroniseen versioon. / Original papers are not included in the electronic version of the dissertation.

  1. Zhang, R., Leiviskä, T., Tanskanen, J., Gao, B., & Yue, Q. (2019). Utilization of ferric groundwater treatment residuals for inorganic-organic hybrid biosorbent preparation and its use for vanadium removal. Chemical Engineering Journal, 361, 680–689. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2018.12.122

    Rinnakkaistallennettu versio / Self-archived version

  2. Zhang, R., & Leiviskä, T. (2020). Surface modification of pine bark with quaternary ammonium groups and its use for vanadium removal. Chemical Engineering Journal, 385, 123967. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2019.123967

    Rinnakkaistallennettu versio / Self-archived version

  3. Zhang, R., Lu, J., Dopson, M., & Leiviskä, T. (2022). Vanadium removal from mining ditch water using commercial iron products and ferric groundwater treatment residual-based materials. Chemosphere, 286, 131817. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131817

    Rinnakkaistallennettu versio / Self-archived version

  4. Zhang, R., Walder, I., & Leiviskä, T. (2021). Pilot-scale field study for vanadium removal from mining-influenced waters using an iron-based sorbent. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 416, 125961. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125961

    Rinnakkaistallennettu versio / Self-archived version

  5. Zhang, R., Zhang, B., & Leiviskä, T. (2022). Vanadium recovery from spent iron sorbent used for the treatment of mining-influenced water. Resources, Conservation & Recycling, 182, 106291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2022.106291

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Series: Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. C, Technica
ISSN: 0355-3213
ISSN-E: 1796-2226
ISSN-L: 0355-3213
ISBN: 978-952-62-3269-0
ISBN Print: 978-952-62-3268-3
Issue: 825
Type of Publication: G5 Doctoral dissertation (articles)
Field of Science: 218 Environmental engineering
Subjects:
Funding: The work was funded by the VanProd project “Innovation for enhanced production of vanadium from waste streams in the Nordic Region (2017-2020, Interreg Nord)”, the Geovana project “Removal of vanadium from mining wastewaters and contaminated natural waters using geological materials (2016-2019, K.H. Renlund Foundation)”, Maa-ja vesitekniikan tuki ry and the Tauno Tönning foundation.
Copyright information: © University of Oulu, 2022. This publication is copyrighted. You may download, display and print it for your own personal use. Commercial use is prohibited.