University of Oulu

Alkali-activation of industrial aluminosilicate sidestreams : application for mine water treatment and sediment remediation

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Author: Laukkanen, Johanna1,2,3
Organizations: 1University of Oulu Graduate School
2University of Oulu, Faculty of Technology, Chemistry, Sustainable Chemistry (SusChem)
3Kerttu Saalasti Institute
Format: ebook
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.7 MB)
Persistent link: http://urn.fi/urn:isbn:9789526236292
Language: English
Published: Oulu : University of Oulu, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-04-05
Thesis type: Doctoral Dissertation
Defence Note: Academic dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Doctoral Programme Committee of Technology and Natural Sciences of the University of Oulu for public defence in the OP-Pohjola auditorium (L6), Linnanmaa, on 14 April 2023, at 12 noon
Tutor: Professor Ulla Lassi
Assistant Professor Tero Luukkonen
Reviewer: Professor Munjed A. Maraga
Associate Professor Teresa Tavares
Opponent: Professor Tuula Tuhkanen
Description:

Abstract

The production of side streams in industrial processes is high and the need to reuse these materials is constantly increasing. Also, wastewater is produced in large quantities in industry, and more attention is being paid to environmental issues, such as the need to clean or stabilize already contaminated areas. The challenge with industrial wastewater, especially mine water, is the diversity of the water chemistry. Thus, the effectiveness of newly developed water purification methods may vary between different sites.

The purpose of this dissertation has been to examine several different industrial sidestream materials, investigate the alkali activation of sidestreams, and consider the use of the obtained alkali-activated materials for two different applications: mine water treatment and sediment remediation, at both laboratory and pilot scales. The purification of seepage water was tested in a closed nickel mine in Hitura (Nivala), and the sediment stabilization experiment was conducted with mesocosms in Lake Kivijärvi (Sotkamo).

The selected sidestreams for the study (metakaolin, blast furnace slag, vermiculite, mine tailings, and zeolite) were characterized and their behavior after alkali activation was studied. As an important new factor for consideration, effect of the curing time (i.e., material age) of the prepared alkali-activated materials on their adsorption properties was evaluated.

The results showed that the blast furnace slag-based water purification material could remove nickel from seepage water. The material may be applied to passive water treatment in the future. The sediment stabilization experiment was also promising in terms of metal retention. Active capping of lake sediment with alkali-activated material may be a more environmentally friendly in-situ treatment than dredging.

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Tiivistelmä

Teollisuudessa muodostuu niin kiinteää jätemateriaalia kuin -vettäkin suuria määriä. Tarve jätemateriaalien hyödyntämiselle uusissa käyttökohteissa on kasvanut koko ajan. Samalla ympäristöllisiin kysymyksiin on kiinnitetty tarkempaa huomiota ja tarve jo saastuneiden alueiden puhdistamiselle tai stabilisoimiselle on tiedostettu. Haasteena teollisuudessa syntyvien jätevesien, ja erityisesti kaivosvesien kohdalla, on syntyvien vesien erilaisuus vesikemian näkökulmasta. Näin ollen kehitettävät puhdistusmenetelmät eivät välttämättä ole toimivia erilaisten kaivosten välillä.

Väitöskirjan tarkoitus on ollut tarkastella muutamia erilaisia teollisuudessa sivuvirtana syntyviä materiaaleja ja kartoittaa niiden toimivuutta alkaliaktivoituna materiaalina kaivosten suotovesien puhdistuksessa sekä sedimenttien stabiloimisessa. Molempien sovellusten toimivuutta testattiin kenttäkokeilla, suotovedenpuhdistuskoe toteutettiin Hituran suljetussa nikkelikaivoksessa ja sedimenttien stabilointikokeet Kivijärvessä Sotkamossa.

Tutkimukseen valitut sivuvirtamateriaalit on karakterisoitu sekä tutkittu niiden käyttäytymistä alkaliaktivoinnin jälkeen. Tärkeänä uutena näkökulmana on arvioitu valmistetun alkaliaktivoidun materiaalin kovettumisajan vaikutusta materiaalin adsorptio-ominaisuuksiin. Tutkimuksen sovelluksina ovat olleet kaivosten suotovesien tutkiminen metallinpoiston näkökulmasta sekä kaivosten läheisyydessä olevien järvien sedimenttien stabilointi.

Tutkimuksen tuloksena voidaan todeta, että masuunikuonapohjainen vedenkäsittelymateriaali poistaa erityisesti nikkeliä kaivosten suotovesistä ja voi soveltua hyvin tulevaisuudessa passiivisten vedenpuhdistusrakenteiden materiaaliksi. Sedimenttien stabilointikokeet olivat myös lupaavia metallien sitomisen suhteen ja voivat mahdollistaa tulevaisuudessa huomattavasti ympäristöystävällisemmän vaihtoehdon järvien ruoppaamiselle.

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Osajulkaisut / Original papers

Osajulkaisut eivät sisälly väitöskirjan elektroniseen versioon. / Original papers are not included in the electronic version of the dissertation.

  1. Laukkanen, J., Ojala, S., Luukkonen, T., & Lassi, U. (2022). Effect of material age on the adsorption capacity of low-, medium-, and high-calcium alkali-activated materials. Applied Surface Science Advances, 12, 100345. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsadv.2022.100345

    Rinnakkaistallennettu versio / Self-archived version

  2. Kutuniva, J., Mäkinen, J., Kauppila, T., Karppinen, A., Hellsten, S., Luukkonen, T., & Lassi, U. (2019). Geopolymers as active capping materials for in situ remediation of metal(loid)-contaminated lake sediments. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 7(1), 102852. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2018.102852

    Rinnakkaistallennettu versio / Self-archived version

  3. Laukkanen, J., Takaluoma, E., Runtti, H., Mäkinen, J., Kauppila, T., Hellsten, S., Luukkonen, T., & Lassi, U. (2022). In situ remediation of metal(loid)-contaminated lake sediments with alkali-activated blast furnace slag granule amendment: A field experiment. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 22(3), 1054–1067. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-022-03140-z

    Rinnakkaistallennettu versio / Self-archived version

  4. Laukkanen, J., Runtti, H., Lancellotti, I., Luukkonen, T. Leonelli, C., & Lassi U. (2023). Alkali-activated materials containing mine tailings and zeolite for seepage water treatment in closed nickel mine. Manuscript in preparation.

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Series: Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. C, Technica
ISSN: 0355-3213
ISSN-E: 1796-2226
ISSN-L: 0355-3213
ISBN: 978-952-62-3629-2
ISBN Print: 978-952-62-3628-5
Issue: 874
Type of Publication: G5 Doctoral dissertation (articles)
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
Subjects:
Funding: My great thanks go to the Finnish Cultural Foundation and the Central Ostrobothnia Regional Fund (grants #25161195, #25171220 and, #25191254). I would also like to thank the KAUTE Foundation, Kerttu Saalasti Foundation, and Tauno Tönning Foundation for their financial support. My research visit to Modena, Italy, was facilitated by the Technology industries of Finland Centennial Foundation. I appreciate the funding from the Kerttu Saalasti and, the Waste management Association foundations. This work was also supported by the KAIVASU (A75259) “Mine closure — impacts and possibilities” and WaterPro (A74635) “New processes of circular economy in water and wastewater treatment” projects. The field work was part of “The Management and restoration of surface water bodies receiving mine waters” (KaiHali, A70827) project, and was partly funded by the European Regional Fund.
Copyright information: © University of Oulu, 2023. This publication is copyrighted. You may download, display and print it for your own personal use. Commercial use is prohibited.