University of Oulu

NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC), Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015: a pooled analysis of 1479 population-based measurement studies with 19·1 million participants, The Lancet, Volume 389, Issue 10064, 7–13 January 2017, Pages 37-55, ISSN 0140-6736, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31919-5. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673616319195)

Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015 : a pooled analysis of 1479 population-based measurement studies with 19.1 million participants

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Author: Zhou, Bin1; Bentham, James1; Di Cesare, Mariachiara2;
Bixby, Honor1; Danaei, Goodarz3; Cowan, Melanie J.4; Paciorek, Christopher J.5; Singh, Gitanjali6; Hajifathalian, Kaveh3; Bennett, James E.1; Taddei, Cristina1; Bilano, Ver1; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M.7; Djalalinia, Shirin8,9; Khatibzadeh, Shahab10; Lugero, Charles11; Peykari, Niloofar8,9; Zhang, Wan Zhu11; Lu, Yuan12; Stevens, Gretchen A.4; Riley, Leanne M.4; Bovet, Pascal13,14; Elliott, Paul1; Gu, Dongfeng15,15; Ikeda, Nayu16; Jackson, Rod T.17; Joffres, Michel18; Kengne, Andre Pascal19; Laatikainen, Tiina20; Lam, Tai Hing21; Laxmaiah, Avula22; Liu, Jing23; Miranda, J. Jaime7; Mondo, Charles K.11; Neuhauser, Hannelore K.24; Sundstrom, Johan25; Smeeth, Liam26; Soric, Maroje27; Woodward, Mark28; Ezzati, Majid1; Abarca-Gomez, Leandra29; Abdeen, Ziad A.30; Rahim, Hanan Abdul31; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.32; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin33; Adams, Robert34; Aekplakorn, Wichai35; Afsana, Kaosar36; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.37; Agyemang, Charles38; Ahmadvand, Alireza9; Ahrens, Wolfgang39; Al Raddadi, Rajaa40; Al Woyatan, Rihab41; Ali, Mohamed M.42; Alkerwi, Ala'a43; Aly, Eman42; Amouyel, Philippe44; Amuzu, Antoinette26; Andersen, Lars Bo45; Anderssen, Sigmund A.46; Angquist, Lars47,48; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan49; Ansong, Daniel50; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer51; Araujo, Joana52; Ariansen, Inger53; Aris, Tahir54; Arlappa, Nimmathota22; Aryal, Krishna55; Arveiler, Dominique56; Assah, Felix K.57; Assuncao, Maria Cecilia F.58; Avdicova, Maria59; Azevedo, Ana60; Azizi, Fereidoun61; Babu, Bontha V.62; Bahijri, Suhad63; Balakrishna, Nagalla22; Bandosz, Piotr64; Banegas, Jose R.65; Barbagallo, Carlo M.66; Barcelo, Alberto67; Barkat, Amina68; Barros, Aluisio J. D.; Barros, Mauro V.58; Bata, Iqbal69; Batieha, Anwar M.70; Baur, Louise A.28; Beaglehole, Robert17; Ben Romdhane, Habiba71; Benet, Mikhail72; Benson, Lowell S.73; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio7; Bernotiene, Gailute74; Bettiol, Heloisa75; Bhagyalaxmi, Aroor76; Bharadwaj, Sumit77; Bhargava, Santosh K.78; Bi, Yufang79; Bikbov, Mukharram80; Bjerregaard, Peter81,82; Bjertness, Espen83; Bjokelund, Cecilia84; Blokstra, Anneke85; Bo, Simona86; Bobak, Martin87; Boeing, Heiner88; Boggia, Jose G.89; Boissonnet, Carlos P.90; Bongard, Vanina91; Bovet, Pascal13,14; Braeckman, Lutgart92; Brajkovich, Imperia93; Branca, Francesco4; Breckenkamp, Juergen94; Brenner, Hermann95; Brewster, Lizzy M.38; Bruno, Graziella86; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B. (as); Bugge, Anna81; Burns, Con96; Bursztyn, Michael97; de Leon, Antonio Cabrera98; Cameron, Christine99; Can, Gunay100; Candido, Ana Paula C.101; Capuano, Vincenzo102; Cardoso, Viviane C.75; Carlsson, Axel C.103; Carvalho, Maria J.52; Casanueva, Felipe F.104; Casanueva, Felipe F.104; Casas, Juan-Pablo87; Caserta, Carmelo A.105; Chamukuttan, Snehalatha106; Chan, Angelique W.107; Chan, Queenie1; Chaturvedi, Himanshu K.108; Chaturvedi, Nishi87; Chen, Chien-Jen109; Chen, Fangfang110; Chen, Huashuai111; Chen, Shuohua112; Chen, Zhengming113; Cheng, Ching-Yu107; Dekkaki, Imane Cherkaoui68; Chetrit, Angela114; Chiolero, Arnaud115; Chiou, Shu-Ti116; Chirita-Emandi, Adela117; Cho, Belong118; Cho, Yumi119; Chudek, Jerzy120; Cifkova, Renata121; Claessens, Frank122; Clays, Els92; Concin, Hans123; Cooper, Cyrus124; Cooper, Rachel87; Coppinger, Tara C.96; Costanzo, Simona125; Cottel, Dominique126; Cowell, Chris127; Craig, Cora L.99; Crujeiras, Ana B.128; Cruz, Juan J.65; D'Arrigo, Graziella129; d'Orsi, Eleonora130; Dallongeville, Jean126; Damasceno, Albertino131; Danaei, Goodarz3; Dankner, Rachel114; Dantoft, Thomas M.132; Dauchet, Luc44,115; De Backer, Guy92; de Gaetano, Giovanni125; De Henauw, Stefaan92; De Smedt, Delphine92; Deepa, Mohan49; Dehghan, Abbas3,103,133,134,135,136,137; Delisle, Helene138; Deschamps, Valerie139; Dhana, Klodian133; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto F.125; Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal Soares140; Diaz, Alejandro141; Dickerson, Ty T.73; Djalalinia, Shirin8,9; Do, Ha T. P.142; Dobson, Annette J.143; Donfrancesco, Chiara144; Donoso, Silvana P.145; Doering, Angela146; Doua, Kouamelan147; Drygas, Wojciech148; Dulskiene, Virginija74; Dzakula, Aleksandar27; Dzerve, Vilnis149; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta150; Eggertsen, Robert84; Ekelund, Ulf46; El Ati, Jalila151; Ellert, Ute24; Elliott, Paul1; Elosua, Roberto152; Erasmus, Rajiv T.153; Erem, Cihangir154; Eriksen, Louise81; Escobedo-de la Pena, Jorge33; Evans, Alun155; Faeh, David156; Fall, Caroline H.124; Farzadfar, Farshad8; Felix-Redondo, Francisco J.157; Ferguson, Trevor S.158; Fernandez-Berges, Daniel159; Ferrante, Daniel160; Ferrari, Marika161; Ferreccio, Catterina162; Ferrieres, Jean91; Finn, Joseph D.163; Fischer, Krista164; Foeger, Bernhard123; Foo, Leng Huat165; Forslund, Ann-Sofie166; Forsner, Maria167; Fortmann, Stephen P.168; Fouad, Heba M.42; Francis, Damian K.158; Franco, Maria do Carmo169; Franco, Oscar H.133; Frontera, Guillermo170; Fuchs, Flavio D.171; Fuchs, Sandra C.172; Fujita, Yuki173; Furusawa, Takuro174; Gaciong, Zbigniew175; Gareta, Dickman176; Garnett, Sarah P.28; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel177; Gasull, Magda178; Gates, Louise179; Gavrila, Diana180; Geleijnse, Johanna M.181; Ghasemian, Anoosheh181,182; Ghimire, Anup183; Giampaoli, Simona144; Gianfagna, Francesco184; Giovannelli, Jonathan44; Goldsmith, Rebecca A.185; Goncalves, Helen58; Gonzalez Gross, Marcela65; Gonzalez Rivas, Juan P.186; Gottrand, Frederic187; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel53; Grafnetter, Dusan188; Grajda, Aneta189; Gregor, Ronald D.69; Grodzicki, Tomasz190; Grontved, Anders81; Gruden, Grabriella86; Grujic, Vera191; Gu, Dongfeng15,15; Guan, Ong Peng192; Gudnason, Vilmundur193; Guerrero, Ramiro194; Guessous, Idris177; Guimaraes, Andre L.195; Gulliford, Martin C.196; Gunnlaugsdottir, Johanna197; Gunter, Marc1; Gupta, Prakash C.198; Gureje, Oye199; Gurzkowska, Beata189; Gutierrez, Laura200; Gutzwiller, Felix156; Hadaegh, Farzad61; Halkjaer, Jytte201; Hambleton, Ian R.202; Hardy, Rebecca87; Harikumar, Rachakulla22; Hata, Jun203; Hayes, Alison J.28; He, Jiang204; Hendriks, Marleen Elisabeth205; Henriques, Ana52; Hernandez Cadena, Leticia206; Herqutanto207; Herrala, Sauli208; Heshmat, Ramin209; Hihtaniemi, Ilpo Tapani1; Ho, Sai Yin21; Ho, Suzanne C.210; Hobbs, Michael211; Hofman, Albert133; Dinc, Gonul Horasan212; Hormiga, Claudia M.213; Horta, Bernardo L.58; Houti, Leila214; Howitt, Christina202; Htay, Thein Thein215; Htet, Aung Soe216; Hu, Yonghua217; Maria Huerta, Jose178; Husseini, Abdullatif S.32; Huybrechts, Inge218; Hwalla, Nahla219; Iacoviello, Licia125; Iannone, Anna G.102; Ibrahim, M. Mohsen220; Ikram, M. Arfan133; Irazola, Vilma E.200; Islam, Muhammad221; Ivkovic, Vanja222; Iwasaki, Masanori223; Jackson, Rod T.17; Jacobs, Jeremy M.224; Jafar, Tazeen107; Jamrozik, Konrad34; Janszky, Imre225; Jasienska, Grazyna190; Jelakovic, Bojan226; Jiang, Chao Qiang227; Johansson, Mattias218; Jonas, Jost B.228; Jorgensen, Torben132; Joshi, Pradeep229; Juolevi, Anne20; Jurak, Gregor230; Juresa, Vesna27; Kaaks, Rudolf95; Kafatos, Anthony231; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra114; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi232; Kasaeian, Amir8; Katz, Joanne233; Kauhanen, Jussi234; Kaur, Prabhdeep235; Kavousi, Maryam133; Kazakbaeva, Gyulli80; Keil, Ulrich236; Boker, Lital Keinan237; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka208; Kelishadi, Roya238; Kemper, Han C. G.239; Kengne, Andre Pascal19; Kersting, Mathilde240; Key, Timothy113; Khader, Yousef Saleh70; Khalili, Davood61; Khang, Young-Ho241; Khaw, Kay-Tee242; Kiechl, Stefan243; Killewo, Japhet244; Kim, Jeongseon245; Klumbiene, Jurate74; Kolle, Elin46; Kolsteren, Patrick134; Korrovits, Paul246; Koskinen, Seppo20; Kouda, Katsuyasu173; Koziel, Slawomir247; Kristensen, Peter Lund81; Krokstad, Steinar225; Kromhout, Daan248; Kruger, Herculina S.249; Kubinova, Ruzena250; Kuciene, Renata74; Kuh, Diana87; Kujala, Urho M.251; Kula, Krzysztof150; Kulaga, Zbigniew189; Kumar, R. Krishna135; Kurjata, Pawel148; Kusuma, Yadlapalli S.252; Kuulasmaa, Kari20; Kyobutungi, Catherine253; Laatikainen, Tiina20; Lachat, Carl92; Landrove, Orlando254; Lanska, Vera188; Lappas, Georg255; Larijani, Bagher182; Laugsand, Lars E.225; Laxmaiah, Avula22; Khanh Le Nguyen Bao142; Le, Tuyen D.142; Leclercq, Catherine256; Lee, Jeannette257; Lee, Jeonghee245; Lehtimaki, Terho258; Lekhraj, Rampal259; Leon-Munoz, Luz M.65; Levitt, Naomi S.260; Li, Yanping3; Lilly, Christa L.261; Lim, Wei-Yen257; Fernanda Lima-Costa, M.262,263; Lin, Hsien-Ho264; Lin, Xu265; Linneberg, Allan132; Lissner, Lauren84; Litwin, Mieczyslaw189; Liu, Jing23; Lorbeer, Roberto266; Lotufo, Paulo A.75; Eugenio Lozano, Jose267; Luksiene, Dalia74; Lundqvist, Annamari; Lunet, Nuno52; Lytsy, Per25; Ma, Guansheng217; Ma, Jun217; Machado-Coelho, George L. L.268; Machi, Suka269; Maggi, Stefania129; Magliano, Dianna J.270; Majer, Marjeta27; Makdisse, Marcia271; Malekzadeh, Reza8; Malhotra, Rahul107; Rao, Kodavanti Mallikharjuna22; Malyutina, Sofia272; Manios, Yannis273; Mann, Jim I.274; Manzato, Enzo275; Margozzini, Paula162; Marques-Vidal, Pedro115; Marrugat, Jaume20,152; Martorell, Reynaldo276; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.277; Matijasevich, Alicia75; Matsha, Tandi E.278; Mbanya, Jean Claude N.57; Posso, Anselmo J. Mc Donald279; McFarlane, Shelly R.158; McFarlane, Shelly R.158; McGarvey, Stephen T.280; McLachlan, Stela281; McLean, Rachael M.274; McNulty, Breige A.282; Khir, Amir Sharifuddin Md283; Mediene-Benchekor, Sounnia214; Medzioniene, Jurate74; Meirhaeghe, Aline284; Meisinger, Christa146; Menezes, Ana Maria B.58; Menon, Geetha R.62; Meshram, Indrapal I.22; Metspalu, Andres164; Mi, Jie110; Mikkel, Kairit164; Miller, Jody C.274; Francisco Miquel, Juan162; Jaime Miranda, J.7; Misigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta27; Mohamed, Mostafa K.285; Mohammad, Kazem8; Mohammadifard, Noushin286; Mohan, Viswanathan49; Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd54,287,288; Moller, Niels C.81; Molnar, Denes289; Momenan, Amirabbas61; Mondo, Charles K.11; Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel K.290; Moreira, Leila B.172; Morejon, Alain; Moreno, Luis A.291; Morgan, Karen292; Moschonis, George273; Mossakowska, Malgorzata293; Mostafa, Aya285; Mota, Jorge52; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeel294; Motta, Jorge279; Muiesan, Maria L.295; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Murphy, Neil1; Mursu, Jaakko234; Musil, Vera27; Nagel, Gabriele296; Naidu, Balkish M.297; Nakamura, Harunobu298; Namsna, Jana59; Nang, Ei Ei K.257; Nangia, Vinay B.299; Narake, Sameer198; Maria Navarrete-Munoz, Eva178; Ndiaye, Ndeye Coumba284; Neal, William A.261; Nenko, Ilona190; Nervi, Flavio162; Neuhauser, Hannelore K.24; Nguyen, Nguyen D.300; Quang Ngoc Nguyen301; Nieto-Martinez, Ramfis E.136; Niiranen, Teemu J.20; Ning, Guang79; Ninomiya, Toshiharu203; Nishtar, Sania302; Noale, Marianna129; Noboa, Oscar A.89; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali8; Norat, Teresa1; Noto, Davide66; Al Nsour, Mohannad303; O'Reilly, Dermot155; Oh, Kyungwon119; Olinto, Maria Teresa A.140; Oliveira, Isabel O.58; Omar, Mohd Azahadi54; Onat, Altan100; Ordunez, Pedro67; Osmond, Clive; Ostojic, Sergej M.191; Otero, Johanna A.213; Overvad, Kim304; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis305; Paccaud, Fred Michel306; Padez, Cristina307; Pahomova, Elena149; Pajak, Andrzej190; Palli, Domenico308; Palmieri, Luigi144; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra228; Panza, Francesco309; Papandreou, Dimitrios310; Parnell, Winsome R.274; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh8; Pecin, Ivan226; Pednekar, Mangesh S.198; Peer, Nasheeta19; Peeters, Petra H.311; Peixoto, Sergio Viana262; Pelletier, Catherine312; Peltonen, Markku20; Pereira, Alexandre C.313; Marina Perez, Rosa314; Peters, Annette146; Petkeviciene, Janina74; Peykari, Niloofar8,9; Son Thai Pham315; Pigeot, Iris39; Pikhart, Hynek87; Pilav, Aida316; Pilotto, Lorenza317; Pitakaka, Freda318; Plans-Rubio, Pedro319; Polakowska, Maria148; Polasek, Ozren320; Porta, Miquel152; Portegies, Marileen L. P.133; Pourshams, Akram8; Pradeepa, Rajendra49; Prashant, Mathur62; Price, Jacqueline F.281; Puiu, Maria117; Punab, Margus246; Qasrawi, Radwan F.30; Qorbani, Mostafa321; Radic, Ivana191; Radisauskas, Ricardas74; Rahman, Mahfuzar36; Raitakari, Olli322; Raj, Manu135; Rao, Sudha Ramachandra235; Ramos, Elisabete60; Rampal, Sanjay323; Rangel Reina, Daniel A.279; Rasmussen, Finn103; Redon, Josep324; Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M.; Ribeiro, Robespierre325; Riboli, Elio1; Rigo, Fernando326; de Wit, Tobias F. Rinke327; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M.271; Robinson, Sian M.124; Robitaille, Cynthia312; Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando65; Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura A.328; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba329; Rosengren, Annika84; Rubinstein, Adolfo200; Rui, Ornelas330; Sandra Ruiz-Betancourt, Blanca33; Russo Horimoto, Andrea R. V.313; Rutkowski, Marcin64; Sabanayagam, Charumathi192; Sachdev, Harshpal S.331; Saidi, Olfa71; Sakarya, Sibel332; Salanave, Benoit139; Salazar Martinez, Eduardo206; Salmeron, Diego178; Salomaa, Veikko20; Salonen, Jukka T.333; Salvetti, Massimo295; Sanchez-Abanto, Jose334; Sans, Susana335; Santos, Diana336; Santos, Ina S.58; dos Santos, Renata Nunes337; Santos, Rute52; Saramies, Jouko L.338; Sardinha, Luis B.336; Margolis, Giselle Sarganas24; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal339; Saum, Kai-Uwe95; Savva, Savvas C.340; Scazufca, Marcia337; Schargrodsky, Herman341; Schneider, Ione J.130; Schultsz, Constance205; Schutte, Aletta E.19,249; Sen, Abhijit225; Senbanjo, Idowu O.342; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.343; Sharma, Sanjib K.183; Shaw, Jonathan E.270; Shibuya, Kenji344; Shin, Dong Wook118; Shin, Youchan192; Siantar, Rosalynn192; Sibai, Abla M.219; Santos Silva, Diego Augusto130; Simon, Mary106; Simons, Judith137; Simons, Leon A.318; Sjotrom, Michael103; Skovbjerg, Sine132; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta150; Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw293; Smeeth, Liam26; Smith, Margaret C.113; Snijder, Marieke B.205; So, Hung-Kwan210; Sobngwi, Eugene57; Soderberg, Stefan166; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo309; Sonestedt, Emily345; Song, Yi217; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.346; Soric, Maroje27; Jerome, Charles Sossa347; Soumare, Aicha348; Staessen, Jan A.349; Starc, Gregor230; Stathopoulou, Maria G.284; Stavreski, Bill350; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein46; Stehle, Peter351; Stein, Aryeh D.276; Stergiou, George S.352; Stessman, Jochanan224; Stieber, Jutta146; Stoeckl, Doris146; Stocks, Tanja345; Stokwiszewski, Jakub353; Stronks, Karien38; Strufaldi, Maria Wany169; Sun, Chien-An354; Sundstrom, Johan25; Sung, Yn-Tz210; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul35; Sy, Rody G.263; Tai, E. Shyong257; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis164; Tamosiunas, Abdonas74,103; Tang, Line132; Tang, Xun217; Tanser, Frank176; Tao, Yong217; Tarawneh, Mohammed Rasoul355; Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina B.334; Taylor, Anne34; Theobald, Holger103; Thijs, Lutgarde349; Thuesen, Betina H.132; Tjonneland, Anne201; Tolonen, Hanna K.20; Topbas, Murat154; Topor-Madry, Roman190; Jose Tormo, Maria180; Torrent, Maties356; Traissac, Pierre357; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios3; Trichopoulou, Antonia358; Trinh, Oanh T. H.300; Trivedi, Atul359; Tshepo, Lechaba360; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.158; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka234; Turley, Maria L.361; Tynelius, Per103; Tzourio, Christophe348; Ueda, Peter3; Ugel, Eunice136; Ulmer, Hanno243; Uusitalo, Hannu M. T.362; Valdivia, Gonzalo162; Valvi, Damaskini3; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.311; Van Herck, Koen92; van Rossem, Lenie311; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.205; Vanderschueren, Dirk122; Vanuzzo, Diego363; Vatten, Lars225; Vega, Tomas267; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo364; Veronesi, Giovanni184; Verschuren, W. M. Monique85; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn134; Victora, Cesar G.58; Viet, Lucie85; Viikari-Juntura, Eira365; Vineis, Paolo1; Vioque, Jesus366; Virtanen, Jyrki K.234; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie284; Viswanathan, Bharathi14; Vollenweider, Peter115; Vrdoljak, Ana222; Vrijheid, Martine367; Wade, Alisha N.368; Wagner, Aline369; Walton, Janette370; Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon Wan287; Wang, Ming-Dong312; Wang, Qian371; Wang, Ya Xing372; Wannamethee, S. Goya87; Wareham, Nicholas242; Wederkopp, Niels81; Weerasekera, Deepa361; Whincup, Peter H.373; Widhalm, Kurt374; Widyahening, Indah S.207; Wiecek, Andrzej120; Wijga, Alet H.85; Wilks, Rainford J.158; Willeit, Peter243; Williams, Emmanuel A.50; Wilsgaard, Tom277; Wojtyniak, Bogdan293; Wong, Tien Yin107; Wong-McClure, Roy A.29; Woo, Jean; Woodward, Mark28; Wu, Aleksander Giwercman345; Wu, Frederick C.163; Wu, Shou Ling112; Xu, Haiquan375; Yan, Weili376; Yang, Xiaoguang377; Ye, Xingwang265; Yiallouros, Panayiotis K.378; Yoshihara, Akihiro223; Younger-Coleman, Novie O.158; Yusoff, Ahmad F.; Zambon, Sabina275; Zdrojewski, Tomasz64; Zeng, Yi111,217; Zhao, Dong23; Zhao, Wenhua377; Zheng, Yingffeng192; Zhu, Dan379; Zimmermann, Esther47,48; Zuniga Cisneros, Julio279
Organizations: 1Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England.
2Middlesex Univ, London N17 8HR, England.
3Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA.
4WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.
5Univ Calif Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
6Tufts Univ, Medford, MA USA.
7Univ Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.
8Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.
9Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Shiraz, Iran.
10Brandeis Univ, Waltham, MA 02254 USA.
11Mulago Hosp, Kampala, Uganda.
12Yale Univ, New Haven, CT 06520 USA.
13Univ Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
14Minist Hlth, Mt Fleuri, Seychelles.
15Natl Ctr Cardiovasc Dis, Beijing, Peoples R China.
16Natl Inst Hlth & Nutr, Tokyo, Japan.
17Univ Auckland, Auckland 1, New Zealand.
18Simon Fraser Univ, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
19South African Med Res Council, Cape Town, South Africa.
20Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland.
21Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
22Natl Inst Nutr, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.
23Capital Med Univ, Beijing An Zhen Hosp, Beijing, Peoples R China.
24Robert Koch Inst, Berlin, Germany.
25Uppsala Univ, S-75105 Uppsala, Sweden.
26London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England.
27Univ Zagreb, Zagreb 41000, Croatia.
28Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
29Caja Costarricense Seguro Social, San Jose, Costa Rica.
30Al Quds Univ, Jerusalem, Israel.
31Qatar Univ, Doha, Qatar.
32Birzeit Univ, Birzeit, Israel.
33Inst Mexicano Seguro Social, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
34Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
35Mahidol Univ, Salaya, Thailand.
36BRAC, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
37Inst Nacl Ciencias Med & Nutr Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
38Univ Amsterdam, NL-1012 WX Amsterdam, Netherlands.
39Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epi, Bremen, Germany.
40Minist Hlth, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
41Minist Hlth, Kuwait, Kuwait.
42WHO, Reg Off Eastern Mediterranean, Cairo, Egypt.
43Luxembourg Inst Hlth, Strassen, Luxembourg.
44Lille Univ & Hosp, Lille, France.
45Sogn & Fjordane Univ Coll, Forde, Norway.
46Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway.
47Bispebjerg Hosp, Copenhagen, Denmark.
48Frederiksberg Univ Hosp, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
49Madras Diabet Res Fdn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India.
50Komfo Anokye Teaching Hosp, Kumasi, Ghana.
51Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Tunis, Tunisia.
52Univ Porto, Rua Campo Alegre 823, P-4100 Oporto, Portugal.
53Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway.
54Minist Hlth Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia.
55Nepal Hlth Res Council, Kathmandu, Nepal.
56Strasbourg Univ & Hosp, Strasbourg, France.
57Univ Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon.
58Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.
59Reg Author Publ Hlth, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia.
60Univ Porto, Sch Med, Rua Campo Alegre 823, P-4100 Oporto, Portugal.
61Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.
62Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India.
63King Abdulaziz Univ, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
64Med Univ Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.
65Univ Autonoma Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain.
66Univ Palermo, I-90133 Palermo, Italy.
67Pan Amer Hlth Org, Washington, DC USA.
68Univ Mohammed V Rabat, Rabat, Morocco.
69Dalhousie Univ, Halifax, NS B3H 3J5, Canada.
70Jordan Univ Sci & Technol, Irbid, Jordan.
71Univ Tunis El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia.
72Univ Med Sci, Havana, Cuba.
73Univ Utah, Sch Med, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA.
74Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania.
75Univ Sao Paulo, BR-05508 Sao Paulo, Brazil.
76BJ Med Coll, Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India.
77Chirayu Med Coll, Bhopal, India.
78SL Jain Hosp, Delhi, India.
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Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 24.9 MB)
Persistent link: http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe201702201789
Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2017
Publish Date: 2017-02-21
Description:

Abstract

Background: Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher.

Methods: For this analysis, we pooled national, subnational, or community population-based studies that had measured blood pressure in adults aged 18 years and older. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2015 in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of raised blood pressure for 200 countries. We calculated the contributions of changes in prevalence versus population growth and ageing to the increase in the number of adults with raised blood pressure.

Findings: We pooled 1479 studies that had measured the blood pressures of 19.1 million adults. Global age-standardised mean systolic blood pressure in 2015 was 127.0 mm Hg (95% credible interval 125.7–128.3) in men and 122.3 mm Hg (121.0–123.6) in women; age-standardised mean diastolic blood pressure was 78.7 mm Hg (77.9–79.5) for men and 76.7 mm Hg (75.9–77.6) for women. Global age-standardised prevalence of raised blood pressure was 24.1% (21.4–27.1) in men and 20.1% (17.8–22.5) in women in 2015. Mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure decreased substantially from 1975 to 2015 in high-income western and Asia Pacific countries, moving these countries from having some of the highest worldwide blood pressure in 1975 to the lowest in 2015. Mean blood pressure also decreased in women in central and eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and, more recently, central Asia, Middle East, and north Africa, but the estimated trends in these super-regions had larger uncertainty than in high-income super-regions. By contrast, mean blood pressure might have increased in east and southeast Asia, south Asia, Oceania, and sub-Saharan Africa. In 2015, central and eastern Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, and south Asia had the highest blood pressure levels. Prevalence of raised blood pressure decreased in high-income and some middle-income countries; it remained unchanged elsewhere. The number of adults with raised blood pressure increased from 594 million in 1975 to 1.13 billion in 2015, with the increase largely in low-income and middle-income countries. The global increase in the number of adults with raised blood pressure is a net effect of increase due to population growth and ageing, and decrease due to declining age-specific prevalence.

Interpretation: During the past four decades, the highest worldwide blood pressure levels have shifted from high-income countries to low-income countries in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa due to opposite trends, while blood pressure has been persistently high in central and eastern Europe.

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Series: Lancet
ISSN: 0140-6736
ISSN-E: 1474-547X
ISSN-L: 0140-6736
Volume: 389
Issue: 10064
Pages: 37 - 55
DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31919-5
OADOI: https://oadoi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31919-5
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3121 Internal medicine
3141 Health care science
Subjects:
Funding: Open Access funded by Wellcome Trust
Copyright information: © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This article is available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). You may copy and distribute the article, create extracts, abstracts and new works from the article, alter and revise the article, text or data mine the article and otherwise reuse the article commercially (including reuse and/or resale of the article) without permission from Elsevier. You must give appropriate credit to the original work, together with a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI and a link to the Creative Commons user license above. You must indicate if any changes are made but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use of the work.
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