University of Oulu

Jason Kramb, Alberto Gómez-Barea, Nikolai DeMartini, Henrik Romar, Tharaka Rama K.C. Doddapaneni, Jukka Konttinen, The effects of calcium and potassium on CO2 gasification of birch wood in a fluidized bed, Fuel, Volume 196, 15 May 2017, Pages 398-407, ISSN 0016-2361, (

The effects of calcium and potassium on CO₂ gasification of birch wood in a fluidized bed

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Author: Kramb, Jason1; Gómez-Barea, Alberto2; DeMartini, Nikolai3;
Organizations: 1Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, PO Box 541, FI-33720 Tampere, Finland
2Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería, University of Seville, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Seville, Spain
3Johan Gadolin Process Chemistry Centre, Åbo Akademi University, FI-20500 Turku, Finland
4University of Oulu, Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, P.O.Box 3000, FI-90014 University of Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2017
Publish Date: 2019-02-11


Birch wood was leached of its naturally occurring ash forming elements and doped with three concentrations of calcium or potassium before being gasified in a laboratory bubbling fluidized bed reactor. The wood samples were pelletized and inserted into a fluidized bed reactor where they were first pyrolyzed with N₂ and then gasified with CO₂. In addition to tracking the gas concentration of the exit gas, char samples were taken from the fluidized bed and analyzed to study the char properties. The presence of potassium in the biomass was found to have a significant influence on the structure of the resulting char, however potassium did not have an observable catalytic effect on the overall gasification reaction rate with CO₂ due to the formation of a unreactive coke layer on the char surface. In contrast, calcium did increase the char conversion rate and is likely the primary active catalyst in gasification of birch wood with CO₂.

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Series: Fuel
ISSN: 0016-2361
ISSN-E: 1873-7153
ISSN-L: 0016-2361
Volume: 196
Pages: 398 - 407
DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2017.01.101
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
215 Chemical engineering
Funding: The Academy of Finland through the Doctoral Program in Energy Efficiency and Systems (EES) and IMUSTBC project; Junta de Andalucía in the project P12-TEP-1633 MO (FLETGAS2); the EU’s Interreg program through the RENEPRO project. This work is part of the activities at the Johan Gadolin Process Chemistry Centre, a Centre of Excellence financed by Åbo Akademi University.
Copyright information: © 2017. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license