University of Oulu

Wesołowska, K., Elovainio, M., Koponen, M. et al. J Genet Counsel (2017) 26: 491. doi:10.1007/s10897-016-0004-4 The final publication is available at Springer via

Is symptomatic long QT syndrome associated with depression in women and men?

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Author: Wesołowska, Karolina1; Elovainio, Marko1,2; Koponen, Mikael3;
Organizations: 1Institute of Behavioral Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
2National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
3Heart and Lung Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
4Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
5Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
6Faculty of Education, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
7Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2017
Publish Date: 2017-06-12


We examined whether long QT syndrome (LQTS) mutation carrier status or symptomatic LQTS are associated with depression, and whether there are sex differences in these potential relationships. The sample comprised 782 participants (252 men). Of the 369 genetically defined LQTS mutation carriers, 169 were symptomatic and 200 were asymptomatic. The control group consisted of 413 unaffected relatives. Depression was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). No association was found for LQTS mutation carrier status with depression. The multinomial logistic regression showed that LQTS mutation carrier men with arrhythmic events scored higher on depression compared with the control group, even when adjusting for age, β-blockers, antidepressants, and social support (OR = 1.09, 95 % CI [1.02, 1.15], p = .007). The binary logistic regression comparing symptomatic and asymptomatic LQTS mutation carriers showed that symptomatic LQTS was associated with depression in men (OR = 1.10, 95 % CI [1.03, 1.19], p = .009). The results were unchanged when additionally adjusted for education. These findings suggest that symptomatic LQTS is associated with depression in men but not in women. Overall, however, depression is more frequent in women than men. Thus, regular screening for depression in LQTS mutation carriers and their unaffected family members can be important.

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Series: Journal of genetic counseling
ISSN: 1059-7700
ISSN-E: 1573-3599
ISSN-L: 1059-7700
Volume: 26
Issue: 3
Pages: 491 - 500
DOI: 10.1007/s10897-016-0004-4
OADOI: 10.1007/s10897-016-0004-4
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 515 Psychology
Funding: This study was supported by the Academy of Finland Grant 258711 awarded to Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen, and the Finnish Funding Agency for Innovation Grant 2510/31/2013 awarded to Ilmari Määttänen.
Copyright information: © National Society of Genetic Counselors, Inc. 2016. Published in this repository with the kind permission of the publisher.