University of Oulu

Rajala, S., Siponkoski, T., Sarlin, E., Mettänen, M., Vuoriluoto, M., Pammo, A., Juuti, J., Rojas, O., Franssila, S., Tuukkanen, S. (2016) Cellulose Nanofibril Film as a Piezoelectric Sensor Material. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 8 (24), 15607-15614. doi:10.1021/acsami.6b03597

Cellulose nanofibril film as a piezoelectric sensor material

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Author: Rajala, Satu1; Siponkoski, Tuomo2; Sarlin, Essi3;
Organizations: 1Department of Automation Science and Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, FI-33101 Tampere, Finland
2Microelectronics Research Unit, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4500, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
3Department of Materials Science, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 589, FI-33101 Tampere, Finland
4Department of Forest Products Technology, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16300, FI-00076 Aalto, Espoo, Finland
5Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, P.O. Box 11000, FI-00076 Aalto, Espoo, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.4 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: American Chemical Society, 2016
Publish Date: 2017-05-27


Self-standing films (45 μm thick) of native cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) were synthesized and characterized for their piezoelectric response. The surface and the microstructure of the films were evaluated with image-based analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The measured dielectric properties of the films at 1 kHz and 9.97 GHz indicated a relative permittivity of 3.47 and 3.38 and loss tangent tan δ of 0.011 and 0.071, respectively. The films were used as functional sensing layers in piezoelectric sensors with corresponding sensitivities of 4.7–6.4 pC/N in ambient conditions. This piezoelectric response is expected to increase remarkably upon film polarization resulting from the alignment of the cellulose crystalline regions in the film. The CNF sensor characteristics were compared with those of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as reference piezoelectric polymer. Overall, the results suggest that CNF is a suitable precursor material for disposable piezoelectric sensors, actuators, or energy generators with potential applications in the fields of electronics, sensors, and biomedical diagnostics.

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Series: ACS applied materials & interfaces
ISSN: 1944-8244
ISSN-E: 1944-8252
ISSN-L: 1944-8244
Volume: 8
Issue: 24
Pages: 15607 - 15614
DOI: 10.1021/acsami.6b03597
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: The authors acknowledge funding from the Academy of Finland (Grants 137669, 258124, 264743, 267573, and 273663). Author T.S. appreciatively acknowledges the Riitta ja Jorma J. Takanen, KAUTE, Tauno Tönning, and Ulla Tuominen Foundations as well as Infotech Oulu Doctoral Program for financial support.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 137669
Detailed Information: 137669 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
258124 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
264743 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
267573 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
273663 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see