University of Oulu

Garcia-Mateo, C.; Paul, G.; Somani, M.C.; Porter, D.A.; Bracke, L.; Latz, A.; Garcia De Andres, C.; Caballero, F.G. Transferring Nanoscale Bainite Concept to Lower C Contents: A Perspective. Metals 2017, 7, 159.

Transferring nanoscale bainite concept to lower C contents : a perspective

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Author: Garcia-Mateo, Carlos1; Paul, Georg2; Somani, Mahesh C.3;
Organizations: 1Department of Physical Metallurgy, National Center for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Avenida Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2Thyssenkrupp Steel Europe, Technology & Innovation, Modelling and Simulation, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Straße 100, 47166 Duisburg, Germany
3Materials Engineering and Production Technology, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
4ArcelorMittal Global R&D Ghent, J.F. Kennedylaan, 9060 Zelzate, Belgium
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2017
Publish Date: 2017-08-09


The major strengthening mechanisms in bainitic steels arise from the bainitic ferrite plate thickness rather than the length, which primarily determines the mean free slip distance. Both the strength of the austenite from where the bainite grows and the driving force of the transformation, are the two factors controlling the final scale of the bainitic microstructure. Usually, those two parameters can be tailored by means of selection of chemical composition and transformation temperature. However, there is also the possibility of introducing plastic deformation on austenite and prior to the bainitic transformation as a way to enhance both the austenite strength and the driving force for the transformation; the latter by introducing a mechanical component to the free energy change. This process, known as ausforming, has awoken a great deal of interest and it is the object of ongoing research with two clear aims. First, an acceleration of the sluggish bainitic transformation observed typically in high C steels (0.7–1 wt. %) transformed at relatively low temperatures. Second, to extend the concept of nanostructured bainite from those of high C steels to much lower C contents, 0.4–0.5 wt. %, keeping a wider range of applications in view.

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Series: Metals
ISSN: 2075-4701
ISSN-E: 2075-4701
ISSN-L: 2075-4701
Volume: 7
Article number: 159
DOI: 10.3390/met7050159
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the European Research Fund for Coal and Steel for funding this research under the contracts RFCS-2015-709607.
Copyright information: © 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (