University of Oulu

Lopez-Fernandez, O., Kuss, D., Romo, L., Morvan, Y., Kern, L., Graziani, P., Rousseau, A., Rumpf, H., Bischof, A., Gässler, A., Schimmenti, A., Passanisi, A., Männikkö, N., Kääriänen, M., Demetrovics, Z., Király, O., Chóliz, M., Zacarés, J., Serra, E., Griffiths, M., Pontes, H., Lelonek-Kuleta, B., Chwaszcz, J., Zullino, D., Rochat, L., Achab, S., Billieux, J. (2017) Self-reported dependence on mobile phones in young adults: A European cross-cultural empirical survey. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 6 (2), 168-177. doi:10.1556/2006.6.2017.020

Self-reported dependence on mobile phones in young adults : a European cross-cultural empirical survey

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Author: Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz1,2; Kuss, Daria J.1; Romo, Lucia3;
Organizations: 1International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK
2Laboratory for Experimental Psychopathology, Psychological Sciences Research Institute, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
3CLIPSYD Lab, Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, Nanterre, France
4CLIPSYD Lab, UFR STAPS, Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, Nanterre, France
5LPS EA 849, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France
6University of Nîmes, Nîmes, France
7Psychology Department, PSITEC EA 4074, Université Lille Nord de France, Villeneuve d ’ Ascq, France
8Department for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Lüebeck, Lüebeck, Germany
9Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, UKE – Kore University of Enna, Enna, Italy
10RDI Services, Oulu University of Applied Sciences, Oulu, Finland
11Department of Nursing – Research Unit of Nursing Science and Health Management, University of Oulu and Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
12Department of Clinical Psychology and Addiction, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary
13Department of Basic Psychology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
14Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
15Department of Family Science and Social Work, Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Paw ł a II, Lublin, Poland
16Department of Psychology, Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Paw ł a II, Lublin, Poland
17Department of Psychiatry – Research Unit Addictive Disorders, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
18Department of Mental Health and Psychiatry – Addiction Division, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
19Department of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
20Institute for Health and Behavior, Integrative Research Unit on Social and Individual Development (INSIDE), University of Luxembourg, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Wolters Kluwer, 2017
Publish Date: 2017-08-17


Background and aims: Despite many positive benefits, mobile phone use can be associated with harmful and detrimental behaviors. The aim of this study was twofold: to examine (a) cross-cultural patterns of perceived dependence on mobile phones in ten European countries, first, grouped in four different regions (North: Finland and UK; South: Spain and Italy; East: Hungary and Poland; West: France, Belgium, Germany, and Switzerland), and second by country, and (b) how socio-demographics, geographic differences, mobile phone usage patterns, and associated activities predicted this perceived dependence.

Methods: A sample of 2,775 young adults (aged 18–29 years) were recruited in different European Universities who participated in an online survey. Measures included socio-demographic variables, patterns of mobile phone use, and the dependence subscale of a short version of the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ; Billieux, Van der Linden, Rochat, 2008).

Results: The young adults from the Northern and Southern regions reported the heaviest use of mobile phones, whereas perceived dependence was less prevalent in the Eastern region. However, the proportion of highly dependent mobile phone users was more elevated in Belgium, UK, and France. Regression analysis identified several risk factors for increased scores on the PMPUQ dependence subscale, namely using mobile phones daily, being female, engaging in social networking, playing video games, shopping and viewing TV shows through the Internet, chatting and messaging, and using mobile phones for downloading-related activities.

Discussion and conclusions: Self-reported dependence on mobile phone use is influenced by frequency and specific application usage.

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Series: Journal of behavioral addictions
ISSN: 2062-5871
ISSN-E: 2063-5303
ISSN-L: 2062-5871
Volume: 6
Pages: 168 - 177
DOI: 10.1556/2006.6.2017.020
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 515 Psychology
Copyright information: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited.