University of Oulu

Sonja Hurskainen, Anne Jäkäläniemi, Veijo Kaitala, Tiiu Kull, Marilin Mõtlep, Satu Ramula, Juha Tuomi; Temporal cycles and spatial asynchrony in the reproduction and growth of a rare nectarless orchid, Cypripedium calceolus, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Volume 183, Issue 2, 1 February 2017, Pages 316–326,

Temporal cycles and spatial asynchrony in the reproduction and growth of a rare nectarless orchid, Cypripedium calceolus

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Author: Hurskainen, Sonja1; Jäkäläniemi, Anne1; Kaitala, Veijo2;
Organizations: 1Department of Ecology, University of Oulu
2University of Helsinki
3Estonian University of Life Sciences
4Section of Ecology, Department of Biology, University Turku
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Oxford University Press, 2017
Publish Date: 2018-02-01


The timing and intensity of plant reproduction vary due to internal and external factors. Although this variation has been widely studied in species exhibiting masting (intermittent synchronous reproduction), it has attracted less attention in nonmasting species. Here, we studied intra-individual variation in the flowering intensity and plant size of a nonmasting, rare terrestrial orchid, Cypripedium calceolus, using long-term monitoring data from three populations in Finland and two populations in Estonia. Flowering intensity and plant size showed 2-year cycles, indicating that reproduction and growth were regulated by past costs of reproduction and extensive clonal growth. In addition, flowering intensity and plant size were positively correlated with size from the previous year and were also affected by the weather conditions of spring and of the previous growing season. However, there was little synchrony among plants, suggesting that the climatic control of reproduction and growth is sufficiently low as to be masked by high annual variation in these two vital rates. Together, these results indicate that the reproduction and growth of C. calceolus depend on individual demographic history and past weather conditions and that intrinsic factors can also lead to cyclic fluctuation in reproduction in nonmasting species.

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Series: Botanical journal of the Linnean Society
ISSN: 0024-4074
ISSN-E: 1095-8339
ISSN-L: 0024-4074
Volume: 183
Issue: 2
Pages: 316 - 326
DOI: 10.1093/botlinnean/bow008
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1181 Ecology, evolutionary biology
Funding: This project has been funded by the Jenny and Antti Wihuri Foundation, Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica, Oulun luonnonystäväin yhdistys, and the Estonian Research Council IUT21-1. SR thanks the Academy of Finland for funding (#285746).
Copyright information: © 2017 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. Published in this repository with the kind permission of the publisher. The definitive version is available at