University of Oulu

Matti Isohanni, Graham K. Murray, Jari Jokelainen, Tim Croudace, Peter B. Jones, The persistence of developmental markers in childhood and adolescence and risk for schizophrenic psychoses in adult life. A 34-year follow-up of the Northern Finland 1966 birth cohort, In Schizophrenia Research, Volume 71, Issues 2–3, 2004, Pages 213-225, ISSN 0920-9964, (

The persistence of developmental markers in childhood and adolescence and risk for schizophrenic psychoses in adult life : a 34-year follow-up of the Northern Finland 1966 birth cohort

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Author: Isohanni, Matti1; Murray, Graham K.1,2; Jokelainen, Jari3,4;
Organizations: 1Department of Psychiatry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, CB2 2QQ Cambridge, UK
3Department of Public Health Science and General Practice, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
4Unit of General Practice, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2004
Publish Date: 2017-09-25


Childhood precursors of schizophrenia include multiple abnormalities of development. Continuities between early and subsequent deviance are poorly characterised. We studied associations among premorbid developmental deviance using data at ages 1 year (learning to stand, walk, and speak, attainment of bladder and bowel control) and 16 years (success at school). Generalised linear modelling was used to examine differential linear associations and trends across adult psychiatric diagnoses. In babies who, as adults, suffered schizophrenia or any psychosis, those who learned to stand latest were also more likely to perform poorly at school in both motor and theoretical domains at age 16 when compared with earlier learners. The effect was independent of genetic and perinatal factors. We conclude that the early developmental deviation in the first year of life is associated with lower school performance at age 16. Developmental continuity among children who develop psychoses was stronger than among normal controls and those hospitalized for nonpsychotic psychiatric disorder. These findings are in line with the hypothesis that a neural diathesis is present during postnatal brain development before schizophrenia. This supports the longitudinal dimension and life span models of schizophrenia.

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Series: Schizophrenia research
ISSN: 0920-9964
ISSN-E: 1573-2509
ISSN-L: 0920-9964
Volume: 71
Issue: 2-3
Pages: 213 - 225
DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2004.03.008
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3124 Neurology and psychiatry
3142 Public health care science, environmental and occupational health
Funding: This work was supported by the grants from the Finnish Academy, Sigrid Juselius Foundation, and the Stanley Medical Research Institute.
Copyright information: © 2004. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license