University of Oulu

Pablo Piñero, Mari Heikkinen, Ilmo Mäenpää, Eva Pongrácz, Sector aggregation bias in environmentally extended input output modeling of raw material flows in Finland, Ecological Economics, Volume 119, November 2015, Pages 217-229, ISSN 0921-8009,

Sector aggregation bias in environmentally extended input output modeling of raw material flows in Finland

Saved in:
Author: Piñero, Pablo1; Heikkinen, Mari1,2; Mäenpää, Ilmo1,2,3;
Organizations: 1Thule Institute, P.O. Box 7300, 90014 University of Oulu, Finland
2Department of Economics, Oulu Business School, P.O.Box 4600, 90014 University of Oulu, Finland
3Finnish Environment Institute, P.O. Box 140, 00251 Helsinki, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.3 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2015
Publish Date: 2017-09-20


This paper presents the impact of sector aggregation bias in Environmentally Extended Input Output (EEIO) models, focusing on raw material flows. Finnish industries are aggregated in different ways and causes of bias are studied. The results show that industries with high raw material use deserve special attention in EEIO models. For Finland, particularly problematic is the aggregation of biomass extractive sectors, since the relative importance of forestry causes noticeable deviations. Sources and strategies to prevent errors are described separately for biomass and mineral raw materials. A brief comparison between raw material flows and greenhouse gas emissions is also made. It is shown that aggregation of extractive sectors biases more in material flow analyses. This issue might be of significance in the near future, owing to the foreseeable changes in the European Union accounting framework.

see all

Series: Ecological economics. The transdisciplinary journal of the International Society for Ecological Economics
ISSN: 0921-8009
ISSN-E: 1873-6106
ISSN-L: 0921-8009
Volume: 119
Pages: 217 - 229
DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2015.09.002
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 511 Economics
Funding: Pablo Piñero thanks the University of Oulu Graduate School, the AURORA Doctoral Program, the Tauno Tönning Research Foundation and the Oulu University Scholarship Foundation for the financial support of this research. Mari Heikkinen and Ilmo Mäenpää acknowledge the funding of the Academy of Finland for the Sustainable Use of Natural Resources and the Finnish Economy (SURE) project (Decision nro. 258559).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 258559
Detailed Information: 258559 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2017. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license