University of Oulu

Tero Luukkonen, Zahra Abdollahnejad, Juho Yliniemi, Paivo Kinnunen, Mirja Illikainen, One-part alkali-activated materials: A review, In Cement and Concrete Research, Volume 103, 2018, Pages 21-34, ISSN 0008-8846, (

One-part alkali-activated materials : a review

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Author: Luukkonen, Tero1; Abdollahnejad, Zahra1; Yliniemi, Juho1;
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, P.O. Box 8000, FI-90014, University of Oulu, Finland
2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BU, United Kingdom
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2018
Publish Date: 2017-11-21


Alkali-activated materials (AAM) are recognized as potential alternatives to ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in order to limit CO₂ emissions as well as beneficiate several wastes into useful products. However, the alkali activation process involves concentrated aqueous alkali solutions, which are corrosive, viscous, and, as such, difficult to handle and not user friendly. Consequently, the development of so-called one-part or “just add water” AAM may have greater potential than the conventional two-part AAM, especially in cast-in-situ applications. One-part AAM involves a dry mix that consists of a solid aluminosilicate precursor, a solid alkali source, and possible admixtures to which water is added, similar to the preparation of OPC. The dry mix can be prepared at elevated temperatures to facilitate the reactivity of certain raw materials. This review discusses current studies of one-part AAMs in terms of raw materials, activators, additives, mechanical and physical properties, curing mechanisms, hydration products, and environmental impacts.

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Series: Cement and concrete research
ISSN: 0008-8846
ISSN-E: 1873-3948
ISSN-L: 0008-8846
Volume: 103
Pages: 21 - 34
DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2017.10.001
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: This work was supported by the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (Tekes) (project GEOBIZ, grant number 1105/31/2016).
Copyright information: © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (