University of Oulu

Jungclaus, J. H., Bard, E., Baroni, M., Braconnot, P., Cao, J., Chini, L. P., Egorova, T., Evans, M., González-Rouco, J. F., Goosse, H., Hurtt, G. C., Joos, F., Kaplan, J. O., Khodri, M., Klein Goldewijk, K., Krivova, N., LeGrande, A. N., Lorenz, S. J., Luterbacher, J., Man, W., Maycock, A. C., Meinshausen, M., Moberg, A., Muscheler, R., Nehrbass-Ahles, C., Otto-Bliesner, B. I., Phipps, S. J., Pongratz, J., Rozanov, E., Schmidt, G. A., Schmidt, H., Schmutz, W., Schurer, A., Shapiro, A. I., Sigl, M., Smerdon, J. E., Solanki, S. K., Timmreck, C., Toohey, M., Usoskin, I. G., Wagner, S., Wu, C.-J., Yeo, K. L., Zanchettin, D., Zhang, Q., and Zorita, E.: The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 – Part 3: The last millennium, scientific objective, and experimental design for the PMIP4 past1000 simulations, Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4005-4033,, 2017

The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 – Part 3 : the last millennium, scientific objective, and experimental design for the PMIP4 past1000 simulations

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Author: Jungclaus, Johann H.1; Bard, Edouard2; Baroni, Melanie2;
Organizations: 1Max Planck Inst Meteorol, Hamburg, Germany
2Aix Marseille Univ, CEREGE, CNRS, IRD,Coll France, Technopole Arbois, F-13545 Aix En Provence, France
3Univ Paris Saclay, CEA CNRS UVSQ, LSCE, IPSL, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France
4Nanjing Univ Informat Sci & Technol, Earth Syst Modeling Ctr, Nanjing 210044, Jiangsu, Peoples R China
5Univ Maryland, Dept Geog Sci, College Pk, MD 20742 USA
6PMOD, Davos, Switzerland
7ETH, Inst Atmospher & Climate Sci, Zurich, Switzerland
8WRC, Davos, Switzerland
9Univ Maryland, Dept Geol, College Pk, MD 20742 USA
10Univ Maryland, Earth Syst Sci Interdisciplinary Ctr, College Pk, MD 20742 USA
11Univ Complutense Madrid, IGEO UCM CS, Dept Astrophys & Atmospher Sci, E-28040 Madrid, Spain
12Catholic Univ Louvain, ELI TECL, Louvain La Neuve, Belgium
13Univ Bern, Phys Inst, Climate & Environm Phys, Bern, Switzerland
14Univ Bern, Oeschger Ctr Climate Change Res, Bern, Switzerland
15Univ Lausanne, Inst Earth Surface Dynam, Lausanne, Switzerland
16Sorbonne Univ, UPMC Univ Paris 06, IPSL, Lab Oceanog Climate,UMR CNRS IRD MNHM, F-75005 Paris, France
17Univ Utrecht, Copemicus Inst Sustainable Dev, Utrecht, Netherlands
18PBL Netherlands Environm Assessment Agcy, The Hague, Netherlands
19Max Planck Inst Stromungsforsch, Gottingen, Germany
20NASA, Goddard Inst Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY USA
21Justus Liebig Univ Giessen, Dept Geog Climatol Climate Dynam & Climate Change, Giessen, Germany
22Justus Liebig Univ Giessen, Ctr Int Dev & Environm Res, Giessen, Germany
23Chinese Acad Sci, LASG Inst Atmospher Phys, Beijing, Peoples R China
24Univ Leeds, Sch Earth & Environm, Leeds, W Yorkshire, England
25Univ Melbourne, Australian German Climate & Energy Coll, Melbourne, Vic, Australia
26Potsdam Inst Climate Impact Res, Potsdam, Germany
27Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden
28Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden
29Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden
30Natl Ctr Atmospher Res, Boulder, CO 80305 USA
31Univ Tasmania, Inst Marine & Antarctic Studies, Hobart, Tas, Australia
32Univ Edinburgh, GeoSci, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland
33Paul Scherrer Inst, Lab Environm Chem, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland
34Univ Bern, Oeschger Ctr Climate Change Res, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland
35Columbia Univ, Lamont Doherty Earth Observ, Palisades, NY USA
36GEOMAR Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res Kiel, Kiel, Germany
37Univ Oulu, Space Climate Res Grp, Oulu, Finland
38Univ Oulu, Sodankyla Geophys Observ, Oulu, Finland
39Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Inst Coastal Res, Geesthacht, Germany
40Univ Venice, Dept Environm Sci Informat & Stat, Venice, Italy
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.1 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Copernicus Publications, 2017
Publish Date: 2017-11-21


The pre-industrial millennium is among the periods selected by the Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Project (PMIP) for experiments contributing to the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) and the fourth phase of the PMIP (PMIP4). The past1000 transient simulations serve to investigate the response to (mainly) natural forcing under background conditions not too different from today, and to discriminate between forced and internally generated variability on interannual to centennial timescales. This paper describes the motivation and the experimental set-ups for the PMIP4-CMIP6 past1000 simulations, and discusses the forcing agents orbital, solar, volcanic, and land use/land cover changes, and variations in greenhouse gas concentrations. The past1000 simulations covering the pre-industrial millennium from 850 Common Era (CE) to 1849 CE have to be complemented by historical simulations (1850 to 2014 CE) following the CMIP6 protocol. The external forcings for the past1000 experiments have been adapted to provide a seamless transition across these time periods. Protocols for the past1000 simulations have been divided into three tiers. A default forcing data set has been defined for the Tier 1 (the CMIP6 past1000) experiment. However, the PMIP community has maintained the flexibility to conduct coordinated sensitivity experiments to explore uncertainty in forcing reconstructions as well as parameter uncertainty in dedicated Tier 2 simulations. Additional experiments (Tier 3) are defined to foster collaborative model experiments focusing on the early instrumental period and to extend the temporal range and the scope of the simulations. This paper outlines current and future research foci and common analyses for collaborative work between the PMIP and the observational communities (reconstructions, instrumental data).

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Series: Geoscientific model development
ISSN: 1991-959X
ISSN-E: 1991-9603
ISSN-L: 1991-959X
Volume: 10
Issue: 11
Pages: 4005 - 4033
DOI: 10.5194/gmd-10-4005-2017
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1171 Geosciences
Funding: The work by Ilya G. Usoskin was partly done in the framework of Center of Excellence ReSoLVE (project no. 272157 of the Academy of Finland).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 272157
Detailed Information: 272157 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.