University of Oulu

Moström, E., Lammentausta, E., Finnbogason, T., Weidenhielm, L., Janarv, P., Tiderius, C. (2017) T2 mapping and post-contrast T1 (dGEMRIC) of the patellar cartilage: 12-year follow-up after patellar stabilizing surgery in childhood. Acta Radiologica Open, 6 (10), 205846011773880. doi:10.1177/2058460117738808

T2 mapping and post-contrast T1 (dGEMRIC) of the patellar cartilage : 12-year follow-up after patellar stabilizing surgery in childhood

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Author: Bengtsson Moström, Eva1; Lammentausta, Eveliina2,3; Finnbogason, Thröstur4;
Organizations: 1Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet
2Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oulu University Hospital
3Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu
4Department of Paediatric Radiology, Karolinska University Hospital
5Stockholm Sports Trauma Research Center, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet
6Department of Orthopaedics, Skane University Hospital, Lund University
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.4 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: SAGE Publications, 2017
Publish Date: 2018-01-02


Background: Cartilage degeneration has been reported after recurrent patellar dislocation. However, effects of surgical stabilization in childhood have not yet been described.

Purpose: To examine the cartilage quality in very young adults operated with a patellar stabilizing procedure due to recurrent patellar dislocation in childhood, and evaluate if cartilage quality correlates with clinical parameters and patient-reported outcomes.

Material and Methods: Seventeen patients were investigated ≥ 5 years (mean = 11.6 years) after patellar stabilizing surgery in childhood. Pre-contrast T2 relaxation times were analyzed in four superficial and four deep patellar cartilage regions of both knees. Two hours after 0.2 mM/kg Gd-DTPA² i.v., post-contrast T1 (T1(Gd)) was analyzed in the same regions. Patient-reported outcomes (KOOS, Kujala, and Tegner scores) and recurrence rates were evaluated.

Results: Comparing operated to healthy side, neither T2 nor dGEMRIC differed between the operated and the reference knee regarding the superficial half of the cartilage. In the deep half of the cartilage, T1(Gd) was shorter in the central part of the cartilage, whereas T2 was longer medially (P < 0.05). A low score in the KOOS subscales Symptom and Sports and Recreation, was correlated to the degenerative changes detected by T1(Gd) (r = 0.5, P = 0.041).

Conclusion: In general, our findings demonstrate good cartilage quality 12 years after patellar stabilizing surgery during childhood. The subtle changes in T2 and T1(Gd) in the deep cartilage layer may be a result of altered biomechanics, although very early degenerative changes cannot be excluded. The short T1(Gd) centrally may reflect lower glycosaminoglycan content, whereas the increase in T2 medially indicates increased cartilage hydration.

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Series: Acta radiologica open
ISSN: 2058-4601
ISSN-E: 2058-4601
ISSN-L: 2058-4601
Volume: 6
Issue: 10
Pages: 1 - 8
DOI: 10.1177/2058460117738808
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3126 Surgery, anesthesiology, intensive care, radiology
Funding: The author(s) received the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This study was supported by grants from: H.R.H. King Oscar II’s and H.R.H. Queen Sophia’s Golden Wedding Foundation, Capio Research Foundation, Sophiahemmet Research Foundation and Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports, Skandia Research Foundation, Promobilia Research Foundation, and Trygg-Hansa Research Foundation.
Copyright information: © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2017. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access page (