University of Oulu

Halonen, N.; Kilpijärvi, J.; Sobocinski, M.; Datta-Chaudhuri, T.; Hassinen, A.; Prakash, S. B.; Möller, P.; Abshire, P.; Kellokumpu, S.; Lloyd Spetz, A. Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 2016, 7, 1871–1877. doi:10.3762/bjnano.7.179

Low temperature co-fired ceramic packaging of CMOS capacitive sensor chip towards cell viability monitoring

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Author: Halonen, Niina1; Kilpijärvi, Joni1; Sobocinski, Maciej1;
Organizations: 1Microelectronics Research Unit, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu
2Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering and the Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland
3Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of Oulu
4Advanced Design Organization, Intel Corporation
5Division of Applied Sensor Science, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Beilstein Institute for the Advancement of Chemical Sciences, 2016
Publish Date: 2018-01-11


Cell viability monitoring is an important part of biosafety evaluation for the detection of toxic effects on cells caused by nanomaterials, preferably by label-free, noninvasive, fast, and cost effective methods. These requirements can be met by monitoring cell viability with a capacitance-sensing integrated circuit (IC) microchip. The capacitance provides a measurement of the surface attachment of adherent cells as an indication of their health status. However, the moist, warm, and corrosive biological environment requires reliable packaging of the sensor chip. In this work, a second generation of low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology was combined with flip-chip bonding to provide a durable package compatible with cell culture. The LTCC-packaged sensor chip was integrated with a printed circuit board, data acquisition device, and measurement-controlling software. The packaged sensor chip functioned well in the presence of cell medium and cells, with output voltages depending on the medium above the capacitors. Moreover, the manufacturing of microfluidic channels in the LTCC package was demonstrated.

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Series: Beilstein journal of nanotechnology
ISSN: 2190-4286
ISSN-E: 2190-4286
ISSN-L: 2190-4286
Volume: 7
Pages: 1871 - 1877
DOI: 10.3762/bjnano.7.179
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 221 Nanotechnology
Funding: This work has been financially supported by the Academy of Finland (The ClintoxNP project #268944) and TEKES (The Chempack project # 1427/31/2010).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 268944
Detailed Information: 268944 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2016 Halonen et al.; licensee Beilstein-Institut. This is an Open Access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The license is subject to the Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology terms and conditions: (